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The oblique cases of the personal pronouns ; Co The prepositions ; d. These areG. The prepositions. The negation receives the acute when it closes a sentence,.. The term encliaiaia olancient date. De pron. Enclitics areG. The oblique cases of the personal pronouns 9 7, b. The Present Indicative of clpl and “p.

Ti, TOt, m, ftp,.. In connecting an enclitic with a preceding word, it must be borne in mind that Greek accentuation admits of no longer termination than one of dactylic rhythm, that is, no more than two post-tonic syllables can be left without accent Accordingly an enclitic loses its accenta.

After a perispomenon or an oxytone 81 b , also after a proclitic, the oxytone and proelitic then receiving the acute not the grave, 82 b f. See The grammarians teach that when several enclitics succeed one another, each one takes an acute from the nen following, so that the lut remains without accent, aB:. It is also to be noted that an accumulation of enclitics, such as appears in the above example, does not actually occnr; this very example being a fiction of the grammarians who coined it fOl’the purpose Arc.

IupwfaeDhAftigkait, ISberappel. Tonoelitics are syntactically accented or rather retain their accent, and 80 are called ortIaotofle- a. When the 80nant which wss to receive the accent of the enc1itic is elided, ss: TaW’ imv for TaVru imv. A number of disyllabic prepositions are oecssionally put after their respective words.

In studying the history of the Greek language, we find that ita gradual evolution has been determined b:r variou8 agencies chiefly internal cp. Some of these agencies, however, are of such a fundamental and general character aB to require an explanation here at the outset. B18II i. S4lo [lJ Obazaz iD Bekk. AttGlogg is the very frequent paychologioal phenomenon by which an item sound, accent, form, word, meaning, construction, ete. Thus wio, P ok: ImYx-‘ to.. I Cor. I, 8ol1X n Luke 1, NT , a”.

Technically initial P is tI8fM. Bee Thus Fp”,. Par the almClllt replar appearanoe of. Before a conaonant, P-N uncultivated speech changea. I lour. BelL Stud. Spm,s i. In 8amothraoe the liquiclll A , aft dropped altoptber cp.

Ai nvAAotIpcG. Between liquids and nasals, a consonant is sometimes phonopatbically developed epenthesis, to facilitate pronunciation. Before gutturals,. Thus l.

So still in N CIA ill. I lIaoo. Tohn 6, RAnt I Cor. Before labials, If cha. In N the combination ,. The results of the two preceding rulea are applicable to Nalao. Note finally that, in the case of. TOur TOIf , inatead of dropping their final 11′ or tT, or accommodating it to the following initial conaonant, popular N speech very frequently inserts a protective or revective -f f.

CGeorafllM Const. On the other hnnd, Fis found in archaic and dialectal Greek 3. Thus the 8I! Sometimes i was apparently blended with a dental into tT’tT or TT.

The combination Pri. Preceded by 3 and sometimes by,, , i apPfUently became C App. AMtf lAM,. Initial F was apparently dropped. Iutenonantic j and Fwere apparently dropped. So too in P-N but Bee f. Even Biblical nouns Scripture names familiar to the masses, notwithstanding Christian piety, conform to this rule, inasmuch as a final consonant other than IT,.

Only in ctlltifXlted speech iB it retained. All the above remarks respecting the determination and qualification of gender are still substantially applicable to N.

The only aigilal departure therefrom is that names of trees in -or, which in A were feminine, now very often appear as masculines cp. This change, however, goea, in many cases, back to P times:. N 4 IWISp4por.

P-N” cp. GBatzidakia N 4 ‘IIMot. The disorimiDation of sender by means of the Mdi1lfl of the Dominative singular must be l8se”ed for the respective sectiona of the decleDlion Here suffice it to state broadly tbatM7. Thia broad aDd general rule aaaumed. IJUggeetive buis wu alnady dorded by the ut declension which distinguished.

O8oe staited, the prooeaa of this terminal dietinction received additional impetua in the fact that in the vd declension numerous feminines in Accordingly in N all mllllCulines end iD So far, then, the above proceaa has not materially deoted the gender, nohrithatanding the long history of the Greek laDggage. The chanpa etleoted are, apart from oertain loceliame and dialectal peculiarities. They are the relNlt mainly of analogy and uaociation aIao diaaociation of meaDing.

The article is substantially preserved in N 23S b. The various cases of a noun are formed by adding certain eMHtg8 or terminations to a fixed part called the stem or theme , of which the closing or final BOund is called the chafV. The stem appears in its genuine and full form by dropping the ending of the genitive case. Accordingly the stem character of the 1st and 2nd declensions is always a sonant a, 0 , while that of the 3rd declension is mainly a consonant When a sonantic stem is succeeded by a terminal vowel, it undergoes a phonopathic change contraction , and 80 does not show its genuine character On the other hand, consonantal steIns generally show their true character.

In N the lilt and 3rd declensions have been, to a large extent, fused into a single declension, the sinlfUlar of which substantially corresponds to the sinplar of the anclent lilt declension, and the plural to the plural of the ancient 3rd declension Rnli, rlna, TlnCl.

Thus, whenever the terminal BOnant of the nominative singular is retained throughout, the accent also remains in its place cp. CII, Tit. Geuitive and dative endings, if ‘long’ and accented, have the cireumJlex. Nominative, vocative, and accusative endings, if accented, have always the acute. Efldi”ll’ 01 tM Firlll Ikt:lenriora. Generally speaking, in maaculines terminal “‘ is the sign of the nominative singular; in femininea, it is the sign of the genitive singular cp.

P-N Sif! Thus, if we look at the si”fIVlm’ of the above endings , we find that the preva. Accordingly the consonantal masculine vocative -Go the genitive feminine. This phenomenon signalized itself as early as A, but owing to the Atticistic and scholastic spirit of all P-B scribes , the assimilation of all terminal sonants appears full1 established only in M-N speech P-N Plural.

In the plural a more atriking and fundamental chanse has taken place. Such an. Accordina’ly -u met with general acceptance, and gradually supplanted -al. Vita Chrya. Leo Gram. But as already explained, this proceu of levelling became manifest as early as P times and ap’peara complete in B-JL popular speech see IF.

For the accuaative plural see Considering that the resultant common ending -er -ff is greatly due to the homophony of aa and f ripen X.

Aa oUrl.. Aiaa-ir “, ‘,tTtT-OI. In declining a noun of the ut declension observe thatI. The vocative and accusative singular agree in accent and quantity. The ending. The ending “‘I remains unchanged throughout the singular. The ending -a, when preceded by a 80nant or p in which case the -a is called pure , remains unchanged throughout thEl singular cp. ID popular lpe4! Ea, -la, -ala have become oxytone,.. Nevertheleea the paroxytone form is alao fairly oommon In the dialects mentioned in 11, eapecially in Ionian speech whioh III moreover in1luenoed by Italian -icI and -fa ,..

N femininee in That in popular N the whole plural otthe let decleDlion follows the plural ot the 3rd declension, has been already explained in Inflection of N Feminines 1st Declension. Car -,w”. GJti-oS’ rroAt. GJti-a, A. The declension of masculines essentially agrees with that of feminines , the only deviation being thatI. The nom. The gen. A barytone eubstantiv81 in -ar pure IJMa, 7’oii Xoxa. The popularity ot tbia practice llince H is moreover expreesly attested by Berodian, who in the tn’l’ teaches ll.

Hi The form a. Z ‘oNrar, 1IGA. Aor, XtJIJpitt. Some stems ending in.. Qa and.. Qa to -ii, and.. All resulting contractions techDicallyand conventionally receive the circumflex. V Epl’1l D. O’VICO” sa8. NevertheleBB historical orthography requires us to follow the ancient accentuation in forma common to. A and N, as: ;, z,. The 3nd Attic declenaion, if ever uaed in A parlance Gp. GAor, IInxpfor, etc.

Dual Sing. Mark that: 1 all endings begin with a. The earlieat traces of lOch aaaimilation go back to A antiquity itself, and the start waa aPearently made by contracted nOUDa, notably.! Compare Sept. ON, etc. IN, nijuN. AB to the Plural in P Greek, the two case-endings -ff and -as- of the nominative and accWJative masculine and feminine.

For apart from the identity of these two cases in all neuters fvAa. In I4f1tic stems the process of transition has been much simpler than in consonantal stems. In this manner, masculine. In the! On this principle, however, they ought to write also I 7′.

Aa early as H times, a confusion between the plural of the 3M and 2nd declensions arose, and the process has gradually resulted in remodelling many mostly polysyllabic and barytone masculinea after those of the 2Dd declension CP Rist.

Singular, after the 1st dec1euaion f. OD IHixa. Dental Stems “” 8, 6. The accusative singular ends in. AapNk Digitized by Google “”, c””.. Ir,r-6t 0]. Br,r-t I”cl cl htp4w cl aatpow cJ. BalJA’W-f’ A. Further examples: lu,J,l’ A’, If the character is 1′, it is dropped before the ending -fA.

Daal N. Plural N. AGm, traXW. Substantives in Theae are all oxytone maaculine, and seem to have originally had cF for stem cbaracter. Also aabstaDtivea having a vowel before fV are often especially in ear-IYA contracted in the genitive aad a. For the acc1J8ative sing1alar -iG, P writers and inacriptiODl often show a contracted form -ij, “. This form, the occurrence of which in common speech is reflected by the Tragedians and even Homer, has met ever SlDce with wider po:pularity, owing to the general tendency towards a uniform inflection ft’.

Aa a nomiDative endiDg, -M that ill “,. SI t being incompatible with N phonology which admits only a ample final -r f. Mark, however, 6 ‘Y’I”7it nU -yew;; Corn. B 10a. Substantives in -oOc and -aGe. Jo-tr V. Jour A. ThMe few noUDa have altogether cliaappeared from popular N with the uception of ” Feminines in 4 also « , Gen. AV”, etc. Ia, 8. KGI D. So further: ‘AO’rv. II58 a B. Kllhner-Bl i.

In N re. Mp” reS spear’ , G. Mparor, etc. In N” , Nvr 4 ‘ship’ , A. Jloeria ,,1f ch eoulCll3la. Sqp nS ‘dream ‘ , G. Bti1l nrri’riD r ill the form. A I’, D. Owl; PL. Koerla a64 dS ‘A. Air, aWeS,. DVoOr and Dl’ua:dr. Aol , “. In SohoL Az. X pci”. Xlpa Crete, etc. Certain adverbial terminations which denote relations of place, appear to act like ease-endings. These a,re- -e. WaaRlI in what place? However, their retreat from actual speech goes back to G times, if we may judge by instances like: 8eft.

Acta 22, 5. Cer, Cp, Greek adjectives have either three endings, one for each gender; or two endings, one for both masc. For the P-N history of this rule see the following aectiODl as. PorphyriOll v. In Greek, comparison is expreesed either by means of endings or by periphrasis.

L By means of endings, and that: I. So still in N,tbough “nn-or is now retreating before ita periphraaia. Lees commonly by -fA”JI, t. This haa become extinct in N. This is still partially preserved in N. The absolute superiatWe which denotes not the highest, but a tJe7Y high degree , is expressed either as above by means of ‘-Ta1W, t. Gf stem ,.. ITdnnoor p41Cpdr p. It will be remembered that popular IIp88CIh. W1pft “..

Some isolated forms, 88 : ‘”. Acta Xanth. The rarer endings -WJI,!. Beside ‘x’p6,. Of these adjectives.. Defective comparison. Some adjectives occur in the comparative and superlative, but not in the positive. These are In P-B we further meet with the following forms: ‘- ‘ up’ am. Preaently verba beginning with j- ‘1-, fa-, ‘-, lI-, , etc.

Verbs beginning with a sona.. Some verbs beginning with , CO, 0-, take tbe temporal augment and at the same time prefix to it the initial vowel together with the succeeding consonant. This is called Attic reduplication by the ancient grammarians, obviously because in their time it we,s foreign to the living language cp.

OIl cU. The P-N history of the augment and reduplication h.. The identity of augment and reduplication, or rather the absence of reduplication, in all verbs beginning with a sonant inevitably led to a olose connexion between the perfect and aeriat, two otherwise naturally associated tenses The same considerations apply to the numerous other cases of verba beginning with two consonanu.

It is true that an initial mute or aspirate admitted of reduplication under certain conditions -2 , but even in th limited caseI, common practice was frequently in1luenced by the preponderance of the other verbs, and dispensed with the reduplication cp. CTTal are cited.. Attic by EuatathioB; cp. G Hatzidakil The gradual pl”OO8llll of the phenomenon can be detected even in the elevated style of the writers of the time who, despite their Atticistio zeal, cannot help admitting into their compositions such forma..

With the disappearance of the consonantal reduplication. The latter telllle, then. So 5 m-. In the call8 of the perlect participle, since it did not of itself refer distinctly to the past, its reduplication even in the form of temporal augment appeared out of place and 80 was simply dropped. M,,’ 3. In Buch compound verbs the preposition may na. AVcu “. I A few compound verbs augment and reduplicate both the verb and the preposition, as: a,-lxopGI ‘endure’ Imperl.

Several verbs, though compounded with prepositions, are felt as simple and thus take the augment before the preposition cp. Verbs compounded with prefixes other than prepositions, or derived from nouns of such a composition I ft’. From the preceding IOOtiODB about compound verba , it will be seen that as long as they were felt to be distinctly compound, that is as long as each component was felt as a distinct and separate word.

When finally auch compounds came to be felt as simple verba they were treated as such, both augment and reduplication 80 far as the latter still survived being prefixed to the preposition, or, in case the prepositIon began with 8ODIIoDt, altogether dropped XtUmar-Blaa, fL Then s.

I Kacc. I, 44 flCfrP”‘J»Tr. UnaTO Ar,. IIaCHq”,; Mal. A number of verba were augmented even in.. This becomes more frequent in P-G, owing to the ignorance of the time, as: Sept. Mar1i 3. CGL 22S ii. Zeitachrirt i. St, 9 C Abgari , 14 kcrilJrt. GSpata 90 A.! GSpata 90 A. AftllfJf ubi Inr,c. GHataidakia p. In order to form and inftect a tense, we must know its ,. This consists in one or more letters affixed directly to the stem. The character -If- of the aorist pueive appears ‘lengthened’ to -Irtill the indicative and infinitive.

In addition to the thematic aonant, the subjunctive annexes a mood fJOtOe1. All above remarks on the inhes, referring as they do to prehistoric antiquity, are naturally applicable to N alao, 10 far as the verbal forma airected atillBurvive. The Greek verb has separate person endings for the voices, as well as for the primary and secondary tenses. The above person endings are regularly appended to the infixes if.

W;o nAYOY But in three IOlitary CI. For P-N The subjunctive of the perfect and pluperfect active, in particular memo-passive, are formed mostly by way of circumlocution The 1lrst person aingalar of the active voice.. The aecond and third persons singular of the active voice,. If ad. So S4.

So 86, 9. SPlo 0 ‘-r,”,Te”l.. I, 4 I-rM”1’e NT Xatt. S, 4 ‘E. Aota ‘1’ho. A I-rIalT. M1IG1″ ubi. IT Katt. I, 44 1Jcracau. Job 5. PL 34, CIG GCuriiua Anecd.

Hat”Pf4 C4a0l1 write C.. It la eertaI. Dce that the ‘optative’ should haft beaD piMt. The future passive has active endings The ending -8, is simply dropped in the present, as 11’«; but in the aorist passive after the tense character. Of the two alternative endings active and middle A contaminatol7 form! In considering the P-N’hiatory of the imperative, we must diatinguiah between its second and third person. The endings -. SSterret1 i. AWestermann 10, In all other N dialects, however, the only endings known are -.

Pontoa and Otranto, though iD. GKorosi i. The plural! AufijTf, xafijTl. The ending -l’CU is peculiar to the perfect active and. The ending WW 7I’G. But see App. Instead of -ftW, the. Owing to ita simple and indeclinable chartllCter, the intinitiv8 shows no morphological viciasitudes lince.. Thil confusion, however, point. In the media-passive voice save in the. M”as: 1I’IIWp. Vita Epiph. GNTA bit. GBpata 64 OI m”ll’ AI-r”. I, J]nt, etc. Yerbs in -Go, continued from p.

ICAn, IC. The only exception is ,aQ which still preserve. For other P chuge8 see Yerbs in -lw. The rule of contraction is that of , S. The conjugation table of verbs in -it” is given in p. Monosyllabic stems contract only in combinations where the resultant, under normal conditions, wonld be -G-, as : wAI.

In P-B Greek the a. Great Louvre Pap. So alwa. The conjugation table ofverbs in -or. The rule that contracted verbs lengthen their character or r to 7h and 0 to III before a consonant , sutfers the following modifications : , I. So too N verbs in. Some verbs mostly liquid and sonantic preserve the short vowel, but insert in the future perfect and ut aorilt passive a.

These are commonly cp. N verb. This peculiarity; however, ill of ancient date, Sept. In T-N thia verb haa the form U- and preaervea -f- throagb. AfI a pao ItfItpov a ,.. So too iD N, excepting. M’ hear’ J. In dealing with the P history of contracted verbs. IriJA’llla, T. On the other hand, the two contracted t. When critically sifted. This pr0ce88 is manifested here in two distinct but parallel forme, one in the resultant.

In either case the question at iBaue was which of the competing resultant. In the cue of 01 and ow, this was undoubtedly ow. The earliest traces of this Bimp1i1l.

NT Katt. IS, a54p! Petri et l’auli Aarciaat lb. Acta Tho. Acta Katt. D CVind. The followiDc oblervation is al80 iDstruotive: TheodOl. For this m88D8 thalIat the time of lreDaeua , ‘Wcll. Glaa IAIod. Iso, ar IrOplJW.. Kac- S94 A. Koreover, as HatBidakis has omitted to explain the.

Tbat thfs tense, or rather the future -’40’01 has contributed to atreDgthen the position of the contracted present ill admissible; but to atIlrm. For first other IIOriBt endinp, beaida -,0’11, admit of a contn. Then it ill rather abnormal that OIl. After verbal contraction had been limited to the two eJue. Aa a matter of fact, thill cIasa owing to the presence in it of the strongest IOnant a,.. The nat -de about vmms. For another IIimilar N 81rlBx An immediate consequence of the above proee88 f.

The three stapa of the lIuoo. W IItJwn! AO”thill clas!! Verbs in -nw poiut to a labial character: in particular ton.. This class of verbs Hill 8urviv in N. All above verba in. Only a few verba in Verba in -nw or -“”GI have, ever llince. A time. BOuthern speech, as: clAAdIra. Conaequent17 aa a preaent ending, o Ia.

In the conjugation of mu’te verbs the same formative elements come into play as those in sonantic verbs. The only noteworthy departure is that in mute verbs the blending or the stem character with the tense ‘character where there is any, involves certain phonetic changes. Hence the following peculiarities must be remembered : In the present and imperfect where there is no fixed tense character 7 56 , mute verbs are inftected exactly like sonantic verbs In all other tenses the stem character coalesces with the tense character or, in the absence of the latter, with the succeeding terminal consonant and undergoes the appropriate phonopathic changes 16g Thus: G.

Interconaonantal ” i. Of these resultanta EQ”r f’f’ 1Tf’ atill hold good in N. Verbs in – lw of more than two syllables drop the future Q Digitized by Google This is called. In the NT writen the ordinary future is while the Attic form -w is rather rare and not a.

Their shorter stem shows itself by reducing -to.. See 29 ft. Their future active and middle is formed from the shorter stem by affixing to it the ending – ;W. OI , distribute’. CIf, I, etc. CIf, E, ete. CIf, I, ete. CIf, f, etc. Ill”””,””” 01, OTO,etc. Several other verba in Aa expected, P Greek went further in this direction and soon brought about..

IdSapa, etc. How far P speech preeen’ed the contracted future is a matter of speculation. Binoe its practioe, u shown in our texts, is mostly a point of mere accentuation, determined bI intuition, or rather by the tute of modern editol’l. Indeed, when we bear in mind that the future indicative began as early u B-Q times to retreat partly before the prell8nt indicative and partly before the future [aorist] subjunctive ; that contraction in verba wu identified with the present tenee ; that the diJferenoe of the indicative and subjunctive future in this particular cue conei.

They may even. The oJlly criterion in the eircumstanoes would be the 1st and 2nd persona plural and the middle voioe, where there is a phonetic difrerenoe -J”I’,. Unfortunately our evidence of this nature is too meagre and fluctuating in unscholastio compositions like the NT writings, to 8NT8 aa a safe indication.! The four verb.

Pl No oonoluive evidenceiaaft’orded by forms U1r. Lake 21, 12 ,.. Lake 43 ftfpafJo. Luke 11, 49 a:nd Acts 7, 34 ElL 30 10 dro8ept. IS, 9; I Cor. Luke 12, 18aaBfAol. John 3,36; 14,17; I John 3.

In the 2nd person singular of!. I yptltlN. In the followiDg three verba,. In the two following verba,. A distinguiahea between the lit and 2nd tenses: ut aor. The 2nd perfect and 2nd pluperfect active are formed from the verbal stem without tense character, and follow the inftection of the rat perfect and 1st pluperfect respectively.

In some caaea there is a ut and 2nd perfect and pluperfect with a difference of meaning: In pt aDd pt: ,, Verbs in -p. In these cases the thematic sonant is dispensed withhence they are sometimes termed athematic tItlrb8 cp. Another feature of verbs in -IM is that they show an amplified present stem. Other in1lectional peculiarities of the verbs in -IM are the following: I.

In some caaes, the primitive endings are resorted to: a. The subjunctive has the usual thematic sonant and ending. The present imperative active contracts the ending r of the 2nd peraon singular with the thematic vowel cp. The participle active annexes the terminal character -“,and forms a sigmatic nominative masculine Verbs in -JU. Mark however thata. The infinitive active accents the penult: 8cucvWcu,. P-N history of Verbs in-JU. Verbs in -lA’ are peculiar to A and Atticistic Greek.

A: 6,. Kilhner-BI ii. This was also to be expected in view of the disadvantages under which the conjugation in -,.. Qq,’ appeared to be quite out of place. Plu;;b, Aelian, Lucian, and the rest, where forms in FKaelker ‘3 f. M ‘OI. It is true that the. Then their occurrence in present parlance rests on a mere fallacy.

The infinitive active attachea the ending -POI, in the present, to the ahort atem; in tae 2nd. In their conjugation, the verba. I”t ru,. Mark however thatG. In the aubjunctive they accent the contracted ending: T. The compound fOrlllll follow the accentuation of the aimJ! The primary subjunctive of these verbs always, and the secondary subjunctive sometimes, follows the conjugation of barytones in. I”” a,. Of ‘0 S. B C Si, Si-T. Ir loT. L, ”fJp. TIVB] nIoi-cw, -,ir, -«i, etc.

CN cmatr. OreatLouvre Pap. Bermas Via. Acta Thad. Acta hdr. PfH1TlI-, I. John 20, CLeemana Pap. UP; 73, 6 d. So :Ell. NT, etc.

CIA iv. M , ‘tfxeJTci. The remaining. A tense forms follow the conjugation of 80nantic barytone verbs, with the following deviations: a. Gaisf, merum ed. I both love and love not, and am niad yet not mad. Ky – 6 aKiva.

Kr]s Kiva. Some authorities say it means stubborn and it is used so by Anacreon. It is Attic. P ied. Suhliine :. Most produotive and fruitful [of such an effect? And Aiiacreon says the saine : The lyre is near to Aegid Theseus.

Anacreon calls her ‘all-given’ and ‘ people-trodden,’ and mad-tail? Sonie authorities say that Aethopia means ‘ wine,’ otliers ‘ Artemis. Tpofpiv]- Ko. DUincr [on meals] : Telemachus’ tables remained before the guests full during the whole of the entertainment as is still the custom among many Barbarian nations, overspread with all manner of good things as Anacreon says. So Anacreon of the woman lie loved.

Pro quo tam felici ouiine, praesertim quia et victoria consecuta est, in signis liellicis sibi aquilam auream fecit, tutelaeque suae virtuti dedicavit, unde et apud Romanos liuiuscemodi signa tracta suiit.

Miller Mil. Zenobius Provrrbs : ‘ Prouder than Peleus of liis sword ‘ :. Somc autliorities say tliat lie wrote the story of Circe and Penelope ‘ loving the same man. Od, 1. Paus : niss oItos ‘ cf. J ayddri;j. MeAavBov r? IG-i Eiist. Orion This man, who had been expelled from Athens, despite h. No, no ; just Hsten, and you’ll under- stand. One day Lasus and Simonides were in for the chorus-prize, and when it was all over Lasus exclaimed ‘I don’t mind a bit.

Tlieon Smyrn. Lasus of Hermione is said. For it was at Corintli that the dancing-chorus first appeared, and the originator of it was Arion of Methymna, who was foUowed by Lasus of Hermione. He was the first writer on 1 cf. And one day, by way of a joke, he purloined a fish froni sonie fishermen, and gave it to one of the bystanders, and tlien took a solemn oath that he neitlier had it himself nor knew that anybody else had taken it ; which he was able to do because he liad taken it himself and another nian liad it, and this man had his instructions to swear that lie neither liad taken it himself nor knew that anybody else liad itwhich he in Hke manner could do because he had it and Lasus had taken it.

Plutarch False Shame : Tliis disease, then, being the cause of many ills, it behoves us to eradicate by treatment. Suppose, for instance, a fellow-guest asks you to play dice over the wine. Do not be put out of countenance or be afraid you are being made fun of, but imitate Xenophanes, who when Lasus of Hermione called him a coward for refusing to phiy dice with him, agreed that he was a coward, and a great coward, over unseemly things.

See also Tz. Prol Lyc. Aud ihat is why the Aeolians are so given to wine, women, and luxurious living. Aacros 5 51s eiTTa Ae-yei. Lasus gives her seven of either sex.

The Same Xatiiral History: The young’of the lj’nx, also, seem to be lcnown as tkvjxvoi ‘ whelps. Uatdv Porph. These lie as though tlirown down beside her feet, and slie lierself is looking at a helmet which she holds in her hand and is about to put upon her head. Telesilla was famous among women for her poetry, but still more famoiis for the following achievement.

Her fellow-citizens had sustained an indescribable disaster at the hands of tlie Spartans under Cleomenes son of Anaxandrides. Some had fallen in the actual battle, and of the others, who took sanctuary in the grove of Argus, some had at first ventured out under a truce only to be slaughtered, and the rest reaUsing the enemy’s treachery had stayed behind only to be burnt to death when he fired the grove.

Bv these means Cleomenes, proceeding to Argos, led liis Lacedae- monians against a city of women. MiiL Virt. Now this battle had been foretold by the Pythian priestess, and Herodotus, whether he understood it or not;, quotes the oracle as follows : When male by female ‘s put to flight And Argos’ name with honour ‘s bright, Many an Argive wife shall show Both cheeks marred with scars of woe.

This woman, we are told, though the daughter of a doughty line, was of a sicklv habit of body, and sent one day to the God to enquire how she might improve lier liealth. When his reply came that she must pay court to the Miises, she obeyed him by devoting herself to poetiy and music, and with such good effect that before very long she had both rid herself of her disorder and become the wonder of her fellow- countrywomen for her skill in poesy.

Those of the reference to tlie heroism of T. The battle took place according to some writers on the seventh, according to others on the fii’st, of the month which is now reckoned the fourth and was known anciently at Argos as the month of Hermes; and oix this day the Argives still celebrate the Hybristica or Feast of Outrage, in which they dress women in the shirts and cloaks of men, and men in the robes and wimples of women.

Acconling to Plnt. See also Hdt. Waivos Se eiVi vaol Tpe7s K3. Nine Muses came of the great Heaven, and nine likewise of the Earth, to be a joy iindying unto mortal nien. The fornier name they have learnt from the Argives, wliose countrj-, according to Telesilla, was the tirst district of Greece in which Pythacus, Mho was a favourite of Apollo, arrived. Nio3;5aii’]- eVtie? K0 TfJ. Apollodorus Library [on tlie children of Niobe] : The only son saved was Amphion and the only daughter Chloris, the eldest, who had become the wife of Neleus, thougli accord- ing to Telesilla the survivors were Amyclas and Meliboea, Amphion perishing with the rest.

Tt]v ‘lovXlSa. There appears to have been a law liere, mentioned by Menander in the hnes ‘ The Cean custom takes my fancy still, The man who can’t live well shall not live ill,’ whereby, in order to make the suppHes go round, all citizens who had reaclied the age of sixty shoukl drink tlie hemlock.

Sta TO 7;Si;. Hipparchus, the eldest and wisest of the sons of Peisistratus, who among other fine ways showed his wisdom. Suidas Le. He was born in tlie 56th Olympiad b. He wrote the following works in the Doric dialect :. Paa: EP. This Simonides had a very remarkable memory. Aristophanes Birds: Poet: Fve written some lyrics to your Cloudcuckooborough, a lot of fine dithyrambs and some maiden-songs, and. The Same JVasps see on Lasus p.

He’s all right ; but there’s something remark- able happening to him. Whafs that? Hes changing into Simonides. I mean that now that he’s old and off colour he’d go to sea on a hurdle to earn a groat. Hiheh Pap. Richards C. Stobaeus AntJiologij : When Simonides was asked why at his advanced age he was so careful of his money, he repHed, ‘ It is because I should rather leave money for enemies when I die than stand in need of friends while I Hve ; for I know too well how few friendships last.

By tliis he implies the possession of great riches, so as to be able to feed many retainers. By ‘ the great Ceian ‘ he means Simonides, who wrote victory-songs and dirges for the aforesaid great Thessalians. Life below VOL, According to Simonides the word is the image of tlie thing. Aristides On tlie E. Simonides gives harmful advice when he says we should play all our lives and never be entirely in earnest.

Simplicins atZ loc. Indeed, when Simonidcs of Ceos made an improper request of liim during the time of his command, he retorted that he would not be a good minister of state if he put favour before law, any more than Simonides would be a good poet if he sang out of tune. I believe that the truth is that Simonides, of whom tradition speaks not only as a delightful poet but in all respects a wise and learned man, despaired of the true answer because so many subtle definitions occurred to him that he could not decide among them.

But not a blow was struck, and the war came to nothing. For we are told that the lyric poet Simonides came up in the nick of time and reconciled the two kings. Alexander of A] hrodisias on Ihe passage : These words will be clear to any reader who has been told what is meant by the Aoyo?

This would seem to be characteristic of foreign birth and lack of educa- tion. Pindar Oliimpians : Skilled is the man who knoweth much by nature ; they that have but learnteven as a pair of crows, gluttonous in their wordiness, these chatter vain things against the divine bird of Zeus.

Scholiast on the passage : He hints at Bacchylides and Simonides, calling himself an eagle and his rlvals crows. Simonides often employs digression. Indeed he tells us himself that lie imitates the musical stvle of Pindar and Simonides and, generally, what is now called the ancient style. Longinus the Rhetorician : Simonides and many after him have pointed out paths to remembrance, counselling us to compare images and localities in order to remember names and eventSj but there is nothing more in it than the concatenation and co- observation of the apparently new with what is similar to it.

Cicero 0? Plutarch Should Old Men Govern? Simonides won the chorus prize in his old age. At that spot the city was taken. Scholiast on Aristophanes JVasps [‘ mind you take up the catch properly’]: It was an old custom for guests at table to continue where tlie first singer left ofF. The guest w ho began held a sprig of bay or myrtle and sang a lyric of Simonides or Stesichorus as far as he chose, and then handed the sprig to another, making his choice of a successor with no regard to the oi’der in which the guests were seated.

Athenaeus Doclors at Dinncr :. Suidas Lexicon : Palaephatus : An Fjgyptian, or according to some authorities, an Athenian ; gram- marian ; wrote Argumcnts or introductions to the works of Sinionides.

Palatine Anthologij : The Garland of Meleager :. Catullus :. Dionysius of Hahcarnassus Criliquc of the Ancicnt JVritcrs : You should note in Simonides liis clioice of words and his nicety in combining them ; moreoverand here he surpasses even Pindarhe is remarkable for his expression of pity not by employing the grand style but by appealing to the emotions. Quintilian Guidc to Oratorij [the Nine Lyric Poets] : Simonides, though in other respects not a command- ing figure, may be praised for his choice of exjires- sion and for a certain sweetness ; but his ehief excellence lies in his pathos ; indeed some critics LYRA GRAECA quidam in hac eum parte omnibus eius operis auctoribus praeferant.

See also Heph. Hiero, Villois. KaKMS ovv prjiri. Kal yap Kal irapa Si. Ancl so tlie Colchian fleece ouglit not to be callcd vqlkos, and Sinioaitles is wrong in this. Simonides sometimes calls it white aiid somelinies purple. And indeed in Simonides’ account the clothini; is tlie orize.

U eVf! The story is given by Simonides in tlie Prayers. Oreitliyia was the daughter of Erechtheus whom tlie Northwind carried ofi”from Attica to Tiirace, there to beget on her Zetes aad Calais, as Simonides tells in the Sca-Fijhf. TreT r The Same Eclogues : For now desiring to call the wind in poetic wise, but being unable to utter poetic speech, I would fain call the wind according to the Ceian Muse.

Kitrtnoi oi ‘S. Miller Mvl. The acropolis was called the ilemnonium, and the Susians are known as Cissian, a title whicli Aeschyhis gives to tlie niother of Memnon ; moreover Memnon is said to liave been buried near Paltus in Syria, on the banks of tlie river Badas, as is tohl by Simonides in his Dithyramb Memnon inchided aniong the Dcliaca. SaTov [which usually are applied to sheep or goats.

UiTTanelov, Arist. TiTpdyu vos, Arist. Adam : Plat. Se kuI tovs 6eoi B : Pl. My praise and friendship is for all them that of themselves earn no disgrace : even Gods figlit not against necessity I am no faultfinder ; enough for me is he that is not good nor yet too exceeding wicked, that knoweth that Right whicli aideth cities, a sound man.

Him will I never blame. Koi fjir 5eu Ka. Xfirwv perh. Such burial neither shall Decay darken, nor Time the all-vanquisher bedim. U 2S9 VOL. Ai’TLO ov Aristid. VliiK Soc. Compare Sinionides in tlie Dirges. Scholiast on Tlieocritus [‘ many in tlie liouse of Antiochus and king Aleuas’] : Antiochus was tlie son of Ecliecratidas and Uyseris, as we Ivnow from Simonides.

Taixvvai compares Soph. Comjh 26 [tt. It is Danaii on the sea, bewailing her fate : When the wind came blowing upon the carven diest and the swaying sea bent her towards fear and tears that would not be stayed from her cheeks, she threw a loving arm round Perseus, saying, ‘O babe, what woe is thine!

Teaj’ icoi. TropcpvpiaKri Nietzsclie : mss -ea, ia. For if the dire were dire to thee, thou ‘dst lend thy little ear to what I say. And what- soever of my prayer be overbold and wrong, do thou forgive it me. A and throngh which Comatas was fed by the bees Tlieocr.

So long as water sball flow and tall trees grow green, sun rise and shine and moon give bght, rivers run and sea wash sbore, ever shall I abide upon tbis sore-lamentcd tonib and tell the passers-by that this is tlie grave of Rlidas. AU these are subject to the Gods ; but a stone, even mortal hands may break it. This is the rede of a fool.

AhIoK 2. An Seni reap. He that can devise all is a God, and there’s nothing to be got among men without toil. Jp’ 26, Agath.

XIII may have been originally parts of Books ; for their order cf. Miller Mtl. Pro Iiiiag. It is or he is apparcntly famous. This poem comes from a Somi of ViHory of Simonides. Crius was an Aeginetan wrestler. And neither was Glaucus hiniself ofFended at being praised at the expense of the Gods who are guardians of athletes, nor did those Gods punish either Glaucus or the poet for impiety.

Far from it, both of them received honour and glory from all Greece, the one for his strength and the other for no poem that he wrote more than for this. Tb Sf avfM popa7s iir’ eaBXols- twv fxeauv yap rj avij. For it is really colourless [meaning an event]. Simonides includes both the victories iu his celebration of the victor. Shortly afterwards, having received a message that two young men wanted him urgently outside, Simonides rose from the table and went to the door, only to find nobody there.

Tliat very moment Scopas ‘ dining-chamber coUapsed, and lie and liis perished in tlie ruins. De Discr. SvvdTOts c. But wlien lie oftered him sufScient pay, he took it and wrote : Hail, ye daughters of storm-footed steeds! Aud yet they were also daughters of asses. J’lrL Mor. Tzetzes Chiliads :. Rh, 3. Movaiov yap fjV lephv evTavda. Whereupon Boethus exclaimed that the place contributed to the stranger’s bewilderment.

For tliere was a chapel of the Muses there, where the spring rises, whicli is why they used this water for libations ; compare Simonides : 1 cf. Tro pT vacTi. The captain of the ship was Pliereelus son of Amarsyas according to Simonides.

Scholiast on Sophocles [‘ What is it you have left undone? For tiie scripture saitli ” Whosoever believetli on him shall not be put to shame. Disc, Ani. E: niss vvv : Wil. Ooiiv xopLr Wil. Sia yrjpas eh oIkov a pe9? Compare Simonides : When the babbling nightingales, the green-necked birds of the Spring Scholiast on Aristophanes Birds [‘What birds arethese’ etc. This appears to be directed against Simonides, who when beaten by Pindar in the contest, wrote abuse of the judge for condemning a good poem.

And it is because in this he said : 1 cf. KoX l,ip. Simonides tries to indicate it tlius : A breeze comes stippHng the sea. Conv, 9. Rein : mss ra iroirifiaTa Koi Tro. According to Simonides, Etna decided between Hephaestus and Demeter when they quarrelled over the possession of the country.

And it wouhl appear that, as if it were a matter of painting, the poems themselves are like the colours, and the dances to which they belong like the outlines which the colours fill.

And the poet who is thought to have done his best and most expressive work in the Hyporcheme or Dance-Song proves that the two arts of dancing and poetry stand in need of one another ; conipare : Come pursue tlie curving course of tlie tune, and imitate with foot a-whirl in the contest unapproach- able horse or Amjclean hound ; or this : And even as on the windy Dotian plain a hound doth fly to find death for a horned hind, and she turns the head upon her neck this, that, and eveiy way and the rest:.

Reinach, 3Id. JVeil y. Tifxriffeis E: other- wise supply eiKhs from an earlier clause ‘ Kirchhoft’, Herm. At any rate lie takes no shauie to hiniself to praise iiis own tlanee any niore than his own poetry ; conipare: And when I shall sing the bride, I know well hovv to mingle the light dance of the feet.

G : Zon, Apoll. Ar Vesp. An Scni 1 rh ydp TToXf? Claudian Ldtcrs [to Probinus] : Fortune helps the brave is the maxim of the poet of Ceos ; and whithcr it leada, though j-ou were silent, I should not hesitate to go. Poor fools they to thiuk sOj and not to know that the time of youth and life is but short for such as be mortal!

VVherefore be thou wise in time, and fail not when the end is near to give thy soul freely of the best.

Tiffi 2,LfiU! JMllSUrus, cf. For they refuse their aid to lend Lord Bacchus’ butcher-knight to mend. Some explain it thus. The festival being near, the axe had been sent to be repaired, and Simonides, who was then a lad, was sent off to the bhicksmitli’s to fetcli it. For the ‘father of the kid ‘ is the bellows, the ‘ fell fish ‘ the ‘ crab ‘ or tongs, ‘ the child of eve ‘ sleep, and ‘ Bacchus’ butcher-knight ‘ the axe. There is another piece by Simonides which puzzles readers who do not know the storj’ : Who would not be of cricket’s prize the winner, To son of Panopeus shall carry dinner.

Now it was arranged that any chorister who came late should pro- vide the jackass with a quart of barley. Tliis is what is referred to in the verses ; he who would not be winner of the crickefs prize means he who would not [learn to] sing,- the son of Panopeus means the jackass, and the dinner the quart of barley. Such is the epitaph of the whole force ; of the Spartans in particular this : Stranger, go tell the Lacedaemonians that we lie here in obedience to their word. And of the seer this : This is the tomb of the famous Megistias, shiin by the Medes beside the river Spercheius, the seer who well-knowing that his doom was nigh, would not forsake the leaders of Sparta.

The epitaphs aud pillars, with the exception of the epitaph of the seer, were accorded them hy the Amphictyons. The epitaph of the seer Megistias was put up by Simonides the son of Leoprepes because of the friendship he bore him. Pah 7. AewviSTfV rhv ‘Zirapna. The Same Simonides on those who died with Leonidas the Spartan : Famous are they this eartli doth covfer, slain here with thee, Leonidas king of spacious Lacedaemon, when they fought and abode the strength of many and many an arrow and swift-footed horse and man of Media.

For I prefer the witness not of Herodotus but of theif tomb and of Sinionides, who wrote the following epitaph on the Corinthians who were buried at Salamis : Once, O stranger, we hved in the well-watered citadel of Corinth, but now we dwell in Ajax’ isle of Salamis. AecoviSov -ntcrdvTas but see opp. B-E, cf. Hence both tlie poet Simonides. Tifxapxos ‘ A? By tlie same Siinonides : When Timomachus was breathing forth his precious youth in his father’s arms, he cried ‘ Never will you cease to long, O son of Timenor, for the valour or the virtue of your dear son.

Why dost thou grudge the souls of men their sojourn with lovely youth. Simias, cf. Bechtel Uist. Same : Simonides : an liexameter followed by a penta- nieter, two trimeters, and an hexameter : Here Hes Dandes of Argos, tlie runner of the single course, after glorifying the horse-breeding land of his birth by two victories at Olympia, three at Delphi, two at the Isthmus, fifteen at Nemea, and others well-nigh past counting.

Xepi-rjTaSas Inscr. Hal, 9. The ghost of the buried man now appeared to Simonides aud urged him not to set sail. Wliereupon he put over the grave the following lines : This is he that saved the life of Simonides of Ceos, he who though dead yet showed his gratitude to the living. The inscription runs thus : When the host of the Mede was destroyed, the sons of Athens defeated tribes of all manner of men from Asia in a fight upon this sea, and dedicated these tokens unto the Virgin Artemis.

Chiimaeleorrs interpretation of T. Ac cordingly when CJreece was invaded by the 1’ersian, the Corinthian courtesans, if we may believe Theoponipus and the 7th Book of Timaeus, went to Aphrodite’s temple and prayed for the salvatioii of Greece.

And thus it was that when the Corinthians dedicated to tlie loddess the tablet which is still extant and inscribed on it the name of each of the courtesaiis who had niade that intercession and after- wards attended the saerifice, the foUowing inscription was dedicated along with it by Simonides : ‘ These ‘ etc. This inscription was now at once erased l y tlie Spartans, who engraved upon the olfering the names of all the cities which had set it up after their combined defeat of the Barbarian.

HdL Mal. Uavaavias, Paroem. Honiolle Mil. Weil, finding together at Delphi four tripod- bases, two larger A and B bearing dedicatory inscriptions of Gelo and [Hiero? For these men first destroyed many of the Medes ashore and then took a hundred ships of the Phoenicians on the sea, ships and shipmen too ; and loud were Asia’s laments when slie found herself smitten with both of their mightily-warring hands.

Asoldier’soffering toZeus ; Sinionirles: Rest so, thou fine long ash, against the tall pillar, abiding ever sacred to Zeus the Diviner ; for thy bronze point is grown old and thou tliyself art worn out with rauch wielding in dreadful war. These are not the words of another man speaking of Simonides, but his own, and moreover he adds the second line to show that it is not a boast of his youthful prime. An Seni 3, Val. Antigenes below cf. Harmodius-song 1 1 vol. Pind P. TpoiBov Sehneider from Thuc.

Casmyhis, Euagoras, Rhodes, boxing at Pytho. S roi Kvrcuv : B SUgg. KvKicv S’ eaTrero K. E, cf. Thus it is owing to the peculiar circumstances of the athlete’s birtli tliat tlio poet thus addresses the Goddess. Aristodemus’ view was based on an Inscription of Simonides. Of tiie Hyperboreans who live for a thousand j’ears lie gives the same account as Simonides, Pindar, andother mythologers.

According to Simonides, Talos, tlie man that Hepliaestus made with his hands, took the Sardinians, wlio refused to carry him over to Minos, and leapt down with them into tlie fire, as he well might do being made of bronze, and there hugged them to his breast and slew them all grinning upon him.

B, cf. Se or 2. But it is im- practicable to quote everj’ case in point. Going forth to seek liis daughter, Euenus came to the river Lj’cormas in Aetoha and there sank down ; whence the Lycormas came to be known as tlie Euenus. But nigh to Arent; Idas was met by ApoUo, who laid hokl on Marpessa, whereat Idas stretched bow and began to fight him for his bride.

Tlien became Zeus judge between them, and bade Marpessa choose her man ; when for fear Apollo woukl kave her when she grew okl, she chose Idas. Such is Simonides’ elaboration of the story. Life of Lycurgus : Nevertheless, although History is at a loss, we will try to base our account of the inan upon such of the recorded facts as are least controverted or have the support of the best authorities.

This is contrary to most of tlie authorities, etc. The ethnic adjective is Acanthius ‘Acanthian,’ whence the proverb ‘Acanthian cricket’ of taciturn people ; for according to Simonides the crickets of that countrj- do not chirp. The handle is called the ‘ bond ‘ or binding by Simonides.

He was at enmity with the lyric poet Simonides, and also with the Athenian Themistocles, of whom he composed a censure in the form of a song. He wrote among other things a comedy directed against the same Themistocles and the lyrist Simonides. Let us not tlierefore surpass him, nor equal the miserable Timocreon, but let us know how to speak well of things, etc.

SchoHast on the passage : According to some authorities Tiniocreon was a lyric poet who wrote lampoons in iambic verse, while others sav that he was a bad man who, when convicted by the Athenians, went about saying, ‘ Fm not their only victim ; there’s Pericles. After Themistocles’ flight and condemnation Timocreon gives far more of a loose to his invective in the song which begins : Make, Muse, this song a bye-word in Greece, as it is meet and just it should be.

Timocreon is said to have been banished for showing Persian sympathies, and Themistocles to have participated in the adveise ballot. And so, when Themistocles was accused of the same oflfence, Timocreon composed upon him these lines : So it is not only Timocreon who takes oaths to help the Medes ; it seems there’s other scoundrels. Fm not the only curtail ; theres other foxes hke me. This agaiu is juoted by Tiniocreon to illustrate how wrong-doers conie eventually by their deserts.

It seenis that at the end of the Adonis-rites, after the honouring of Adouis by Aphrodite, the Cyprians threw into his funeral pyre some live doves, which flew awaj’ only to fall into another pyre and perish after all. There was a time wlieu the Milesians were doughty men. For you it is that are tlie eause of all the evil of the world. E -Bgk. Adrastus: 86; Peripatetic philoso- pher; a. Agatlion : ; WTiter of tragedy ; B. Alcaeus : 14, 26, 64, , , , , , , , , , , , ; lyric poet; B. Alciphron : ; WTiter of fictitious letters; a.

Alexander of Aetolia : 48, , ; poet; B. Alexander of Aphrodisias : ; Peripatetic philosopher; a. Ammianus Marcellinus : 24, ; historian; a. Anacreon : 20, 64, 78, 82, 84, tr. Anacreontea: , , , ; a collection of short poems suitable for singing, written by various hands, mostly late, in imitation of Anacreon Anaxagoras : ; philosophcr; B.

Antiphanes : 50 ; writer of comcdy ; B. Antiphon : ; Attic orator ; B. Antoninus Liberalis : ; mytholo- gist; A. Anyte : ; a poetess, author of ‘ epigrams ” ; B. Apion : ; grammarian; a. ApollodOrus : 44, 62, ; chronolo ger, grammarian, mvtholo gist ; B. ApoIIonius son of Archebius , , , , ; gram- marianand lexicographer, a. Apollophanes : 96 ; writer of comedy; B. Archilochus : 14, , 62, 68, , ; elegiac and iambic poet ; B. Arlon : 4, , ; lyric poct ; B. Aristarchus : 49, 68, 72, , , , ; grammarian ; B.

Aristeas : 96 ; WTiter of comedy ; prob. Aristides: 44, 2. Aristodemus son of Menecratcs : ; B. Ariston : ; Peripatetic philoso- pher; B. Aristophanes [Ar. Aristoxenus : 56, , G; writer on music ; B. Arsenius : , , , , , , , , , , , ; son of Apostolius; coni- piler of a collection of proverbs andsayings; A. Athenaeus fAth. Bacchvlides : 64, 74, 99, , , ,; IjTicpoet; B. Bel-lefs AnecdOta: , , , , , , ; a collectimi of previously unedited Grcek works, publishcd Boissonade’s Anecdula Graeca Nova : ; Extracts from Greek MSS preserved at Paris publishcd Caesius Bassus : ,; Eoman metrician of uncertain date Callimachus: , , , ; poet; B.

Callistratus, pupil of Aristophancs of Byz. Catullus : ; E. Chamaeleon : 85, , , , , , , , ; Peripatetic philosopher and grammarian; B. C Choeroboscus, Georgius : 74, , , , , , , ; grammarian ; a. C ; the fragmcntary work On Nega- tires is perh. Claudian : ; Iloman poct; A. Cranier’s AnecdOta O. Crinagoras : ; epigrammatist ; A. Critias, friend of Anacreon : , ; descendant of tlie above ; B.

Critias son of Callaesclirus : ; orator and poet; one of tlie ‘ Thirty Tyrants ‘ ; descendant of the above ; B. Crobylus : ; also linown as Hegesippus ; an Athenian ora- tor; c.

Cruquius : ; editor of Horace; A. Cyrillus : ; of Alexandria ; author of a glossary; a. Deinolochus : 96 ; writer of comcdy ; B. Demetrius : 18, 84, ; rhetori- cian; a. Demetrius of Scepsis : ; gram- marian; B. DemosthCnes : , , ; the great Athenian orator and statesman; B. Didymus : ,; grammarian; 30 B. Dio Chrysostom: 27, 30, , , , ; rhetoriciau ; A. Diogenes Laertius [Diog. Dionysius Periegetes : , ; geographer; B. Dionysius of Thrace : 72, , , , ; grammarian ; B.

Echembrotus : 2 Ennius : ; Roman poct ; B. Epicharmus : 96, , ; writer of comedy; B. Epiphanius : 77; Christian writer; A. Erinna : ; a poetess of doubtful date Erotian : ; lexicographer ; a.

Florentivum and Et. Eudoxus : ; astronomer; B. Euius : 8 ; flute-player B. Eumelus : , ; epic and lyric poet; B. Eupolis : ; writer of eomedy ; B. Euripides : 20, 31, 38, 43, , 50, , 58, 60, 88, , , , , , , , , , , ; writer of tragedy; B. Eusebius : , 78, , , ; clironologer [mostly survivcs only in Jerome’s Latin version and the Armenian trans- lation] ; a.

CnCsippus : ; an erotic lyric poet; B. Harpocration : 48, , ; gram- marian; a. Helianax : 22 Heliodorus : , , ; metri cian; 30 B. Hephaestion : , , 6, , , , , , , , , , ; metrician; A. Heracleitus : ; grammarian ; A. Hermesianax : , ; poet ; B. Hermogenes : 28, , ; rheto- rician; a. Herodian [Hdn. Hesiod : 4, 16, 28, 34, 45, , 72, , , , , , ; epic poct ; B.

Hesychius : 10, 58, , 87, 10, , , , , 1. Hunt at Hiboli in Esvpt ; published in Himerius : 18, 64, 78, , , , , , , , , ; rhetorician ; a. Hippocrates : 92, ; phj-sician ; B. Hipponax : 4, , ; WTiter of lampoons in iambic verse; B. Homer: , 22, , 32, 36, , , 62, , 94, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ; see also Iliad, Odyssey, Eustathius, Tzetzes ; roet ; l!.

Homeric Hymns : 63 ; a collection of hymns to tlie Gods by various hands ; B. Horace : 26, 42, , , , , , , , , ; Roman poet; 25 B. Iriarte’s lieg. Johannes Cliarax : 1 65 ; gram- marian; a. Libanius : , ; rhetorician ; A.

Longinus, Cassius : ; rhetori- cian; a. Lucian : 20, 30, 34, 73, , , , , , ; rhetorician and satirist; A. Lycurgus : ,; Atticorator; B. Lysias : ; Attic orator; B. Macarius : 30 ; compiler of Greek proverbs; A. Macedonius : ; epigrammatist ; A. Megastheues : ; geographer ; B.

Mclampus : 2,6; singer to the lyre lyric poet? Menander : , ; vritcr of comedy; B. Menander : ; rlietorician ; a. Mnasalcas : ; epigrammatist ; B. Mocro : ; poetcss ; B. Myrtis : Natalis Comes : ; mythogra- pher; a. Nepos, Cornelius : ; Roman historian ; 60 B. Nicander : ,; poet;B. Nicephorus : ; Christian histor- ian; a. Orion : , , ; lexicogra- phcr; A. Hunt at Oxyrhynchus in Egypt iii , still in course of publi- cation Palaephatus : ; mythographcr; B.

Palatine Antholoyy [A. Inscriptions and riuasi- inscriptions, cmbodying the carlicr corapilations of Mcle- ager and othcrs, made by Constaiitine Ccphalas about A. Piinyassis the yoiingcr : 32 ; philosophcr; B. Parian Chronicle : 20, 23, , , ; an inscribed stoiic, now at Oxford, giving a summary of Greek history down to B. Paroemiofjraphi Jraeci: , , , , , , , , , ; the CoIIection of tlie proverb-collcctions of Zciiobius and othcrs publishcd by von Lcutsch and Schneidewin iii ; sce aho O.

Crusius Ana- lecta Critica ad Paroem. Persius : Romanpoet; a. Pherecrates : ; writer of comedy ; B. Phereeydes of Leros or Athens : ; historian; B. Philemon : , ; lexicogra- pher; a.


 
 

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Vita Chrya. Leo Gram. But as already explained, this proceu of levelling became manifest as early as P times and ap’peara complete in B-JL popular speech see IF. For the accuaative plural see Considering that the resultant common ending -er -ff is greatly due to the homophony of aa and f ripen X. Aa oUrl.. Aiaa-ir “, ‘,tTtT-OI. In declining a noun of the ut declension observe thatI. The vocative and accusative singular agree in accent and quantity.

The ending. The ending “‘I remains unchanged throughout the singular. The ending -a, when preceded by a 80nant or p in which case the -a is called pure , remains unchanged throughout thEl singular cp. ID popular lpe4! Ea, -la, -ala have become oxytone,.. Nevertheleea the paroxytone form is alao fairly oommon In the dialects mentioned in 11, eapecially in Ionian speech whioh III moreover in1luenoed by Italian -icI and -fa ,..

N femininee in That in popular N the whole plural otthe let decleDlion follows the plural ot the 3rd declension, has been already explained in Inflection of N Feminines 1st Declension. Car -,w”. GJti-oS’ rroAt. GJti-a, A. The declension of masculines essentially agrees with that of feminines , the only deviation being thatI.

The nom. The gen. A barytone eubstantiv81 in -ar pure IJMa, 7’oii Xoxa. The popularity ot tbia practice llince H is moreover expreesly attested by Berodian, who in the tn’l’ teaches ll. Hi The form a. Z ‘oNrar, 1IGA. Aor, XtJIJpitt. Some stems ending in.. Qa and.. Qa to -ii, and.. All resulting contractions techDicallyand conventionally receive the circumflex. V Epl’1l D. O’VICO” sa8. NevertheleBB historical orthography requires us to follow the ancient accentuation in forma common to. A and N, as: ;, z,.

The 3nd Attic declenaion, if ever uaed in A parlance Gp. GAor, IInxpfor, etc. Dual Sing. Mark that: 1 all endings begin with a. The earlieat traces of lOch aaaimilation go back to A antiquity itself, and the start waa aPearently made by contracted nOUDa, notably.! Compare Sept. ON, etc. IN, nijuN. AB to the Plural in P Greek, the two case-endings -ff and -as- of the nominative and accWJative masculine and feminine. For apart from the identity of these two cases in all neuters fvAa.

In I4f1tic stems the process of transition has been much simpler than in consonantal stems. In this manner, masculine. In the! On this principle, however, they ought to write also I 7′. Aa early as H times, a confusion between the plural of the 3M and 2nd declensions arose, and the process has gradually resulted in remodelling many mostly polysyllabic and barytone masculinea after those of the 2Dd declension CP Rist.

Singular, after the 1st dec1euaion f. OD IHixa. Dental Stems “” 8, 6. The accusative singular ends in. AapNk Digitized by Google “”, c””.. Ir,r-6t 0]. Br,r-t I”cl cl htp4w cl aatpow cJ. BalJA’W-f’ A. Further examples: lu,J,l’ A’, If the character is 1′, it is dropped before the ending -fA. Daal N. Plural N. AGm, traXW. Substantives in Theae are all oxytone maaculine, and seem to have originally had cF for stem cbaracter.

Also aabstaDtivea having a vowel before fV are often especially in ear-IYA contracted in the genitive aad a. For the acc1J8ative sing1alar -iG, P writers and inacriptiODl often show a contracted form -ij, “. This form, the occurrence of which in common speech is reflected by the Tragedians and even Homer, has met ever SlDce with wider po:pularity, owing to the general tendency towards a uniform inflection ft’.

Aa a nomiDative endiDg, -M that ill “,. SI t being incompatible with N phonology which admits only a ample final -r f.

Mark, however, 6 ‘Y’I”7it nU -yew;; Corn. B 10a. Substantives in -oOc and -aGe. Jo-tr V. Jour A. ThMe few noUDa have altogether cliaappeared from popular N with the uception of ” Feminines in 4 also « , Gen.

AV”, etc. Ia, 8. KGI D. So further: ‘AO’rv. II58 a B. Kllhner-Bl i. In N re. Mp” reS spear’ , G. Mparor, etc. In N” , Nvr 4 ‘ship’ , A. Jloeria ,,1f ch eoulCll3la.

Sqp nS ‘dream ‘ , G. Bti1l nrri’riD r ill the form. A I’, D. Owl; PL. Koerla a64 dS ‘A. Air, aWeS,. DVoOr and Dl’ua:dr. Aol , “. In SohoL Az. X pci”. Xlpa Crete, etc. Certain adverbial terminations which denote relations of place, appear to act like ease-endings.

These a,re- -e. WaaRlI in what place? However, their retreat from actual speech goes back to G times, if we may judge by instances like: 8eft.

Acta 22, 5. Cer, Cp, Greek adjectives have either three endings, one for each gender; or two endings, one for both masc. For the P-N history of this rule see the following aectiODl as. PorphyriOll v. In Greek, comparison is expreesed either by means of endings or by periphrasis. L By means of endings, and that: I. So still in N,tbough “nn-or is now retreating before ita periphraaia. Lees commonly by -fA”JI, t. This haa become extinct in N. This is still partially preserved in N.

The absolute superiatWe which denotes not the highest, but a tJe7Y high degree , is expressed either as above by means of ‘-Ta1W, t. Gf stem ,.. ITdnnoor p41Cpdr p. It will be remembered that popular IIp88CIh. W1pft “.. Some isolated forms, 88 : ‘”. Acta Xanth. The rarer endings -WJI,!. Beside ‘x’p6,. Of these adjectives..

Defective comparison. Some adjectives occur in the comparative and superlative, but not in the positive. These are In P-B we further meet with the following forms: ‘- ‘ up’ am. Preaently verba beginning with j- ‘1-, fa-, ‘-, lI-, , etc. Verbs beginning with a sona.. Some verbs beginning with , CO, 0-, take tbe temporal augment and at the same time prefix to it the initial vowel together with the succeeding consonant.

This is called Attic reduplication by the ancient grammarians, obviously because in their time it we,s foreign to the living language cp. OIl cU. The P-N history of the augment and reduplication h.. The identity of augment and reduplication, or rather the absence of reduplication, in all verbs beginning with a sonant inevitably led to a olose connexion between the perfect and aeriat, two otherwise naturally associated tenses The same considerations apply to the numerous other cases of verba beginning with two consonanu.

It is true that an initial mute or aspirate admitted of reduplication under certain conditions -2 , but even in th limited caseI, common practice was frequently in1luenced by the preponderance of the other verbs, and dispensed with the reduplication cp. CTTal are cited.. Attic by EuatathioB; cp. G Hatzidakil The gradual pl”OO8llll of the phenomenon can be detected even in the elevated style of the writers of the time who, despite their Atticistio zeal, cannot help admitting into their compositions such forma..

With the disappearance of the consonantal reduplication. The latter telllle, then. So 5 m-. In the call8 of the perlect participle, since it did not of itself refer distinctly to the past, its reduplication even in the form of temporal augment appeared out of place and 80 was simply dropped.

M,,’ 3. In Buch compound verbs the preposition may na. AVcu “. I A few compound verbs augment and reduplicate both the verb and the preposition, as: a,-lxopGI ‘endure’ Imperl. Several verbs, though compounded with prepositions, are felt as simple and thus take the augment before the preposition cp. Verbs compounded with prefixes other than prepositions, or derived from nouns of such a composition I ft’. From the preceding IOOtiODB about compound verba , it will be seen that as long as they were felt to be distinctly compound, that is as long as each component was felt as a distinct and separate word.

When finally auch compounds came to be felt as simple verba they were treated as such, both augment and reduplication 80 far as the latter still survived being prefixed to the preposition, or, in case the prepositIon began with 8ODIIoDt, altogether dropped XtUmar-Blaa, fL Then s.

I Kacc. I, 44 flCfrP”‘J»Tr. UnaTO Ar,. IIaCHq”,; Mal. A number of verba were augmented even in.. This becomes more frequent in P-G, owing to the ignorance of the time, as: Sept.

Mar1i 3. CGL 22S ii. Zeitachrirt i. St, 9 C Abgari , 14 kcrilJrt. GSpata 90 A.! GSpata 90 A. AftllfJf ubi Inr,c. GHataidakia p. In order to form and inftect a tense, we must know its ,. This consists in one or more letters affixed directly to the stem.

The character -If- of the aorist pueive appears ‘lengthened’ to -Irtill the indicative and infinitive. In addition to the thematic aonant, the subjunctive annexes a mood fJOtOe1. All above remarks on the inhes, referring as they do to prehistoric antiquity, are naturally applicable to N alao, 10 far as the verbal forma airected atillBurvive. The Greek verb has separate person endings for the voices, as well as for the primary and secondary tenses.

The above person endings are regularly appended to the infixes if. W;o nAYOY But in three IOlitary CI. For P-N The subjunctive of the perfect and pluperfect active, in particular memo-passive, are formed mostly by way of circumlocution The 1lrst person aingalar of the active voice.. The aecond and third persons singular of the active voice,. If ad. So S4. So 86, 9. SPlo 0 ‘-r,”,Te”l.. I, 4 I-rM”1’e NT Xatt. S, 4 ‘E. Aota ‘1’ho. A I-rIalT. M1IG1″ ubi.

IT Katt. I, 44 1Jcracau. Job 5. PL 34, CIG GCuriiua Anecd. Hat”Pf4 C4a0l1 write C.. It la eertaI. Dce that the ‘optative’ should haft beaD piMt. The future passive has active endings The ending -8, is simply dropped in the present, as 11’«; but in the aorist passive after the tense character.

Of the two alternative endings active and middle A contaminatol7 form! In considering the P-N’hiatory of the imperative, we must diatinguiah between its second and third person. The endings -. SSterret1 i. AWestermann 10, In all other N dialects, however, the only endings known are -.

Pontoa and Otranto, though iD. GKorosi i. The plural! AufijTf, xafijTl. The ending -l’CU is peculiar to the perfect active and. The ending WW 7I’G. But see App. Instead of -ftW, the. Owing to ita simple and indeclinable chartllCter, the intinitiv8 shows no morphological viciasitudes lince.. Thil confusion, however, point. In the media-passive voice save in the. M”as: 1I’IIWp. Vita Epiph. GNTA bit. GBpata 64 OI m”ll’ AI-r”.

I, J]nt, etc. Yerbs in -Go, continued from p. ICAn, IC. The only exception is ,aQ which still preserve. For other P chuge8 see Yerbs in -lw. The rule of contraction is that of , S. The conjugation table of verbs in -it” is given in p.

Monosyllabic stems contract only in combinations where the resultant, under normal conditions, wonld be -G-, as : wAI. In P-B Greek the a. Great Louvre Pap. So alwa. The conjugation table ofverbs in -or. The rule that contracted verbs lengthen their character or r to 7h and 0 to III before a consonant , sutfers the following modifications : , I.

So too N verbs in. Some verbs mostly liquid and sonantic preserve the short vowel, but insert in the future perfect and ut aorilt passive a. These are commonly cp. N verb. This peculiarity; however, ill of ancient date, Sept. In T-N thia verb haa the form U- and preaervea -f- throagb. AfI a pao ItfItpov a ,.. So too iD N, excepting.

M’ hear’ J. In dealing with the P history of contracted verbs. IriJA’llla, T. On the other hand, the two contracted t. When critically sifted. This pr0ce88 is manifested here in two distinct but parallel forme, one in the resultant. In either case the question at iBaue was which of the competing resultant. In the cue of 01 and ow, this was undoubtedly ow. The earliest traces of this Bimp1i1l. NT Katt. IS, a54p! Petri et l’auli Aarciaat lb.

Acta Tho. Acta Katt. D CVind. The followiDc oblervation is al80 iDstruotive: TheodOl. For this m88D8 thalIat the time of lreDaeua , ‘Wcll. Glaa IAIod. Iso, ar IrOplJW.. Kac- S94 A. Koreover, as HatBidakis has omitted to explain the. Tbat thfs tense, or rather the future -’40’01 has contributed to atreDgthen the position of the contracted present ill admissible; but to atIlrm. For first other IIOriBt endinp, beaida -,0’11, admit of a contn.

Then it ill rather abnormal that OIl. After verbal contraction had been limited to the two eJue. Aa a matter of fact, thill cIasa owing to the presence in it of the strongest IOnant a,.. The nat -de about vmms. For another IIimilar N 81rlBx An immediate consequence of the above proee88 f.

The three stapa of the lIuoo. W IItJwn! AO”thill clas!! Verbs in -nw poiut to a labial character: in particular ton.. This class of verbs Hill 8urviv in N. All above verba in. Only a few verba in Verba in -nw or -“”GI have, ever llince. A time. BOuthern speech, as: clAAdIra. Conaequent17 aa a preaent ending, o Ia. In the conjugation of mu’te verbs the same formative elements come into play as those in sonantic verbs.

The only noteworthy departure is that in mute verbs the blending or the stem character with the tense ‘character where there is any, involves certain phonetic changes.

Hence the following peculiarities must be remembered : In the present and imperfect where there is no fixed tense character 7 56 , mute verbs are inftected exactly like sonantic verbs In all other tenses the stem character coalesces with the tense character or, in the absence of the latter, with the succeeding terminal consonant and undergoes the appropriate phonopathic changes 16g Thus: G. Interconaonantal ” i. Of these resultanta EQ”r f’f’ 1Tf’ atill hold good in N.

Verbs in – lw of more than two syllables drop the future Q Digitized by Google This is called. In the NT writen the ordinary future is while the Attic form -w is rather rare and not a. Their shorter stem shows itself by reducing -to.. See 29 ft. Their future active and middle is formed from the shorter stem by affixing to it the ending – ;W. OI , distribute’.

CIf, I, etc. CIf, E, ete. CIf, I, ete. CIf, f, etc. Ill”””,””” 01, OTO,etc. Several other verba in Aa expected, P Greek went further in this direction and soon brought about..

IdSapa, etc. How far P speech preeen’ed the contracted future is a matter of speculation. Binoe its practioe, u shown in our texts, is mostly a point of mere accentuation, determined bI intuition, or rather by the tute of modern editol’l.

Indeed, when we bear in mind that the future indicative began as early u B-Q times to retreat partly before the prell8nt indicative and partly before the future [aorist] subjunctive ; that contraction in verba wu identified with the present tenee ; that the diJferenoe of the indicative and subjunctive future in this particular cue conei. They may even. The oJlly criterion in the eircumstanoes would be the 1st and 2nd persona plural and the middle voioe, where there is a phonetic difrerenoe -J”I’,.

Unfortunately our evidence of this nature is too meagre and fluctuating in unscholastio compositions like the NT writings, to 8NT8 aa a safe indication.! The four verb. Pl No oonoluive evidenceiaaft’orded by forms U1r. Lake 21, 12 ,..

Lake 43 ftfpafJo. Luke 11, 49 a:nd Acts 7, 34 ElL 30 10 dro8ept. IS, 9; I Cor. Luke 12, 18aaBfAol. John 3,36; 14,17; I John 3. In the 2nd person singular of!. I yptltlN. In the followiDg three verba,. In the two following verba,. A distinguiahea between the lit and 2nd tenses: ut aor. The 2nd perfect and 2nd pluperfect active are formed from the verbal stem without tense character, and follow the inftection of the rat perfect and 1st pluperfect respectively. In some caaea there is a ut and 2nd perfect and pluperfect with a difference of meaning: In pt aDd pt: ,, Verbs in -p.

In these cases the thematic sonant is dispensed withhence they are sometimes termed athematic tItlrb8 cp. Another feature of verbs in -IM is that they show an amplified present stem. Other in1lectional peculiarities of the verbs in -IM are the following: I. In some caaes, the primitive endings are resorted to: a. The subjunctive has the usual thematic sonant and ending.

The present imperative active contracts the ending r of the 2nd peraon singular with the thematic vowel cp. The participle active annexes the terminal character -“,and forms a sigmatic nominative masculine Verbs in -JU. Mark however thata. The infinitive active accents the penult: 8cucvWcu,. P-N history of Verbs in-JU. Verbs in -lA’ are peculiar to A and Atticistic Greek. A: 6,. Kilhner-BI ii. This was also to be expected in view of the disadvantages under which the conjugation in -,..

Qq,’ appeared to be quite out of place. Plu;;b, Aelian, Lucian, and the rest, where forms in FKaelker ‘3 f. M ‘OI. It is true that the. Then their occurrence in present parlance rests on a mere fallacy. The infinitive active attachea the ending -POI, in the present, to the ahort atem; in tae 2nd. In their conjugation, the verba. I”t ru,. Mark however thatG.

In the aubjunctive they accent the contracted ending: T. The compound fOrlllll follow the accentuation of the aimJ! The primary subjunctive of these verbs always, and the secondary subjunctive sometimes, follows the conjugation of barytones in. I”” a,. Of ‘0 S. B C Si, Si-T. Ir loT. L, ”fJp. TIVB] nIoi-cw, -,ir, -«i, etc. CN cmatr. OreatLouvre Pap. Bermas Via. Acta Thad. Acta hdr. PfH1TlI-, I. John 20, CLeemana Pap. UP; 73, 6 d. So :Ell. NT, etc. CIA iv. M , ‘tfxeJTci. The remaining. A tense forms follow the conjugation of 80nantic barytone verbs, with the following deviations: a.

The stem vowel remains short in several cases, as : 8fBop. The stem vowel is irregularly lengthened in the forms. Cp Digitized by Google The singular of the 1st aorist active of n9? Future lIt Aor. I’fellll A writere commonly – ;. The intreneitiV8 perCect aubj. Chr ot. NU, 2S2. L Stud. It does not occur in Biblical compositions and is extinct in N, while.

A 4»fjoiJ””, is still the universal term in colloquial N. I Future f7cro””, ‘aba. In P-B Greek 0l3a is conjugated regularly: , olaar also olatr due to.

Berlin [t23]; Great Louvre Pap. Hence in NT we only once read frracn” Acts 26, 14 , and once frrf”f Heb. I, 19 , whereas the regular P form i. S95 C. See p. Y ‘; lee Id ‘EAA’I J88 c. N: ucWo! ID P-N speech replaced b,. P forms:. P-N forma: d. N: a-, cll’. N», commoner lJa”. N: 1uJ-. Leo as Gram. Il”’; imprt. See Cd. A: IJA6. It -‘4″01lO’ intr. UW- ‘Bee’- 3.

P forma: 3. N: 1JA1- also. Salt- A: IJovltt–r. A: ‘lJoV. Oauatin A: Inoeptive 1JitlC. UA,r after “A,r, cp. P ‘1lp6. P-B forms: ‘YfMa N: ‘YfN» alao Iba-, “M-, w. N: “;”’01’0’ alao. P-B forms: “,. OJttCl aubj. By-form ICA ‘fear,’ see , b. P-B forma:. Berlin [1″n-nl,] r.. ICI, I”. P-B forms cp. P-B forma: -,,u””’-‘I”H,O”. N: Wan.. N: t””,,- ‘P3 -t. N: tT P-N forDl1l : a from tf7’r’1″‘. P-B forma : It. COI or rather tcala. Bee rC.. Bupra P-B forma: fut.

N: 1CGl. P form: mA4″”. AN- mAf”p4″ur. I’I’Wt see lA- infra. N: m,. By-form: It,palC. P-B forma: ‘. N: IrA.. De Pron. P forma: I; -lIid. C” P fol’lD8: AIA. XCI -tf””.. N: Al y. P forma: AM, AO.!. If, AMI, A,wop. Aov, AoiillfP –IA. AoII y op. O JIoLl’. I””Iw-Wol’G’ durat. P forma:. Bee tr. P forma: oWnlpOl-oln-“,. P form: fat.

O Ill””” ‘deatroy ‘ dw-clUvl”, alao lE-. II , “ft. N: 6 “”. P fOrllls: Iwl. O ‘fVwt ‘sharpen ‘ frfIp-oE,- 36; Ill, 7 ‘-polIOiHTu. GI Le. See UDder EI. Atl supra Y’ -d YYIovpm durat. N: 6]p10y0″. IIQ ‘I Etpa.. P fOl’lDa: tralio””” QIIIU lwaln,.. P forma: “haallll. Tliose to whom mj’ words will apply are not present, and therefore in a sense my words become vain and empty, although at the same time it is certain that they will be true and to the poiut.

For it is obvious that the fault is not nor ever can, savc the mark, be mine, but rather lies with the entire and inveterate apathy of these gentlemen themselves. Now the precedent for expiation for ainners in mythology goes back, not indeed to Homer, but to Stesichorus, who when blinded for slandering Helen did not, like Homer, wonder why, but like a true scholar recognised the reason for what had befallen him and witliout more ado wrote ‘ This story ‘ etc.

I spake vanities, and I will go seek another prelude. This story is not true ; thou wentest not in the benched ships, thou camest not to the city of Troy.

STrjfrtxopos 8e naTpdia rhv KaTo. And Stesichorus uses iraTpoi? Stuart-Jones Cat. TraiSl KvKvcf. Scholiast on Pindar Olipnpians [‘ the fight with Cycnus turned even the conquering Heraoles about ‘] : The great Heracles was turned about or gave ground in his fight with Cycnus because Cycnus was set on by Ares. The cause of Heracles’ fighting him was his inliospitality ; for he lived in the Pass of Thessaly and belieaded travellers in order to buikl a temple to Apollo wiili their heads, and when Heracles came that way was for serving liim the same.

Upon their joining battle Heracles took to flight because Ares aided the youthful Cycnus. Bnt afterwards Heracles killed him like the rest of his enemies.

It is an ‘ intermixture ‘ [or mingling of the author’s words with another’s] which has escaped notice. The passage is very neatly done and the original is by Stesichorus. Come, Miise, thrust wars away, and with nie in honour of a wedding of Gods and a feast of men and eke a merrymaking of the Blest. A 37, 38 Scholiast on the same later [‘ Such roundelays of the fa. Such roundelays of the fair-tressed Graces must we find out a geutle Phrygian tune to sing, at the Spring- thiie’s cominff in.

VoL Hcrc. According to Stesichorus in the Scylla, Scylla was tlie daughter of Lamia. It was a poem of Stesichorus in which a maiden called Calyce prayed to Aplirodite that she might be wedded to a youth called Euathlus, and when he flouted her threw herself over a clifl”.

The scene was laid near Leucas. The poet gave the maideu a very virtuous cliaracter ; for she had no Avish that she and the youth shouhl conie together at all hazards, but prajed that she might if j ossible be his wedded wife, or failing that might die. For the poet tells how Rhadine when wedded to a despot at Corinth sailed froni Samos thither with a soutli-west wind certainly not the lonianSamos ; andwitli the samewindher brother arrived at the liead of a sacred mission at Delphi ; moreover her cousin- lover goes off after her to Corinth in a chariot, and the despot kills them both and sends tlie bodies back in a chariot, though indeed he repents and recalls it, and buries them.

Stesichorus raises the proper cry in the words : Conie hither, Calliope the sweet and clear. II, 5. Stesichorus uses it to mean ‘ vigorous’ : and they launched the slender javehns. W KaWoL tSiv rra. This man, who went sickle in iiand M’itli tlie pitcher on his shoulder, found wiien he reached tlie place an eagle held so irresistibly in Ihe coils of a snake that he must very soon be crushed to death.

His unlooked for task accomplished, the countryman filled his pitcher, and going back, mixed the wine and lianded it round to the company, who all drained both their first cups before the nieal and many more along with it, he biding his turn, being for that time as it happened servingman and not guest. But no sooner had he raised cup to lip, than the eagle he had saved, being as hick would have it still near by and willing to make him good relurn for his service, swoops on the cup, knocks it over, and wastes the drink.

The poor fellow, who had been verj’ thirsty, cried out in anger, ‘ You are the bird I saved’for he reeognised hini. Here’s a foul end to a fair deed! How shall anj- man now trouble himself for another out of fear of the Ciod of thanks?

It seems that the snake had voided his vomit in the spring and fouled it with his venom, and tlie eagle had returned like with like and saved his saviour. Crates of Pergamum declares that this tale is told in a little-known poem of Stesichorus, which ia my opinion is high and anciont authority. Stesichorus too ascribes the poem to Hesiod. TpaTrhv’ cpaffKovras. Nevertheless, the story of Stesichorus is incorrect, and with regard to Pindar we do not know if what he did was successful in putting, a stop to the party strife.

But if either was the fact, it was done rather by words poetically arranged than by poetry, and they would have met with even greater success if they had employed prose. The story is told by Stesichorus. Th XiTTOi. Triaixdpf- ovk Ttl 5e r, ipoovr] KaTO. It is therefore necessary to e. PpvWixtcrTai, Poll. M, Lelongs to Ibye.

Tuv, Pliot. Homer uses it of battle, whereas in Ibycus 66 and Stesi- chorus it means spear-head 96 Eustathius on tlie Odyssey : Stesichorus uses the superlative most high-minded of men 97 Timaeus in Athenaeus Boctors at Dinner [on Democles the tlatterer of Dionysius the Yoimger] :.

TvcpAoTfpos a nra. Gl Ibycus carminum scriptor agnos- citiir. TOU5 ‘! He was of an extremely amorous disposition, and was the inventor of the instrument called sanihuca, whicli is a kind of three-cornered lyre. His works are in seven Books written in the Doric dialect. Some time afterwards one of the robbers saw some cranes in the city and cried, ‘ Look!

Whereupon they were convicted and forthwith executed, not indeed that they were punislied by the cranes, but rather com- ]ielled by their own garrulity as by some Fury or Doom-Goddess to confess to the murder they had committed. Even Aegisthus who slew tlie bard ” in olden days escaped not the eye of tlie sable-robed Eumcnides. A proverb used of fooHsh persons. For Ibycus, when he miglit liave reigned as a despot over his fellow- citizens, went away to live in lonia.

Yet to judge from liis works they all were surpassed in this matter by Ibycus of Rhegium. And the love of all these poets was the sensual love. GOl quotes J’r. S8Se [tt. I swear his approach makes me tremble like an old champion- horse of tlie chariot-race when he draws the swift car all unwillingly to the contest.

TXVP– Ars Gram. Tnopevoi, AeA. V ilpr]jxivr v. SS -ov: rrpooeSeyfx. In the form Cadmeis therefore the e is pleonastic, and when Ibycus says : he lay with a Cadmid maiden, lie uses the correct form. And thus niost of the mathematicians say that the word is used of raindrops. Pearson Soph, Fi-ag.

Strabo GeograpJiy [on islands that have become peninsidas. Phaech: C, Suid. Report hath it that Prometheus stole the fire, and this tale says that Zeus fiew into a rage and gave those who told him of the theft a charm to avert old age. I understand that the recipients of tliis charm put it upon an ass, aiid the ass went on before with his pack, and growing tliirstyfor it was summertimebetook himself to a spring to get him drink. But the snake that guarded tliat spring checlied hia advance, and would have driven him off had he not twisted his head about and bought his friendship with the only gift lie had to liand, tlie cliarm he carried on liis back.

The bargain is struck. The ass drinlis ; the snake sloughs his okl age, receiving, they say, the ass’s thirst to boot. Well now ; is tliis tale of my own making? No, I cannot claim that for mine whicli was told before me by Sophocles the tragedy-writer, Deinoloehus the rival of Epicliarmus, Ibycus of Rhegium, and Aristeas and Apollophanes the writers of comedy. Wallis Ojk Malh. V Tis twv aneLpciiv ij. There may well be one with a motith greedy of strife who shall rouse battle aeainst me.

Ibycus there adds how the Dawn carried otF Titlionus. Ibj-cus speaking of the pillars that support heaven calls them paSivol slender instead of ‘ very great. Ap, Rh. Scholiast on Euripides Andromache [‘j’0u slew not the woman when she was in j’0ur power, but when you saw her breast you cast away your sword and received her kiss, fondling a treachei’ous she-dog ‘] : This has been better arranged by Ibycus, who makes Helen take refuge in the temple of Aphrodite and parley thence with Menelaus, who thereupon drops his sword for love of her.

On the coast of tlie Adriatic there is a holy island called Diomedeia in which he is worshipped as a God ; compare Ibycus Recognition of their identity is first made by Ibycus of Rhegiuni. Thus Herodian. Il id. So Ibycus is wrong in using the word Ai0va ptyfvi i Libya-born 63 Scholiast on ApoUonius of Rhodes Argonautica [‘ in goat- pelts clad’]: that is ‘ skins,’ whence comes arfpcpiSxTai ‘to cover with hide ‘ ; and Ibycus says hide-clad host for an army that wears skins.

G6 Sub. XV ayr. FotI oi IBYCUS children of Pi-iani with the taking of Troy the high-gatedj for all ’tis so glorious a thenie ; nor shall I recount the proud valour of the Heroes, the Heroes so noble whom the hollow ships with their nailed sides brought unto Troy for her mischief, of whom Agamemnon was chief, the Pleisthenid king, the leader of men, the son of a noble father, to wit of Atreus.

Theirs it is to share beauty for ever, and thine, too, Polycrates, shall be a glory, even as my glory in song, unfading. It is tlie birthplace of the Iju-ic poet Anacreon, in wliose time the inhabitants left their city and founded Abdera in Thrace because they would not endure the Persian yokewhence the saying : ‘ Abdera, fair new home of them of Teos,’though indeed some of the Teians returned in hiter days.

Aristoxenus Hislories : Approximately years are represented as having elapsed between the Trojan War and the times of the physical philosopher Xenophanes, of Anacreon and Polycrates, and of the blockade of lonia by Harpagus the Persian and the migration of the Phocaeans to Marseilles to escape it.

Eusebius Chronicle : Second year of the 62nd Olympiad n. He wrote elegiac and iambic poems, all in the lonic dialect. He was contemporary with Polycrates tyrant of Samos, that is, of the 62nd Olympiad, though some authorities put him in the time of Cyrus and Cambyses, that is, in the 65th b. His life was devoted to love and song. He wrote drinking-songs and iambics and the poems called Anacreontea. The former by fortune and power became so great as to rule the seas.

Under his roof hved the lyrist Anacreon, whose poetry abounds with references to him. Now the elder Polycrates was not only king of Samos but ruled all the inner seas of Greece. The indignant nurse con- tented herself with expressing a pious wish that the very scoundrel who now cursed the child should Uve to praise him in still stronger termswhich indeed was the fact ; for the God heard her prayer and, the child growing to be the lovely Cleobulus, Anacreon expiated a little curse with manifold praise.

This he did in order to educate liis fellow-citizensand make them loyal subjects, because he believed, hke a true man of culture, that wit and wisdom should never be despised. Plato Charmides : I hardly beheve that anybody in 1 cf.

The fame of your father’s family, the house of Critias son of Dropides, has come down to us crowned with the praises accorded it by Anacreon, Solon, and many other poets for the beauty, the virtue, and the pi-osperity as it is called, of those who have belonged to it ; the same is true of yoiir mothers.

Never shall love of thee, Anacreon, grow old or die, so long as serving-lad bears round mixed wine for cups and deals bumpers about board, so long as maiden band does holy night-Iong service of the dance, so long as the scale-pan that is daughter of bronze sits upon the summit of the cottabus-pole ready for the throwing of the wine- drops. Near Xanthippus stands Anacreon of Teos, the first poet excepting Sappho of Lesbos to make his chief theme love.

The statue represents him as one singing in his cups. TraiScov Xfiepov jjpfioaaTO. For his sweet dehghtful music he forgetteth not, nay, givetli that lyre of his no rest even there in death. Declaniations : Sappho and Anacreon never cease to call upon Cypris as a sort of prehide to their poems. The Same : Anacreon adorns the city of Teos with his poems and thence derives his loves. Athenaeus Doclors at D’mner [on drinking-songs] : Compare what Aristophanes says in the Banqneters, ‘ Take and sing me a drinking-song of Alcaeus or Anacreon.

Cicero Tiisculan Disputaiions : Anacreon’s poetical works are entirely erotic. The Same [on fr. Seneca Letters to Lucilius : The grammarian Didymus wrote four thousand books. I should pity him if he had merelv read so many useless works. The list includes treatises in Avhicli he discusses tlie birthplace of Homer, the true mother of Aeneas, whetlier Anacreon was more of a rake than a sot, whether Sappho was a prostitute, and other questions the answers to which you ought to forget if you knew them.

And then people complain that Hfe is short. Walz 6. LaTa to. Athenaeus Docf. O lad that lookest in maiden wise, I seek thee and thou hearkenest not, little knowing that the reins of my soul are in thy hand. Schneider, but ois, ci. Trap” ‘AvaKpeoyTi-?

Poseidon is the ‘ cause ‘ comprising the sea, being the cause of ‘drinking’ ttoo-is owing to the rivers and other waters whicli spring forth after percolating from the sea, with which ‘ drinking ‘ is connected the rain, itself ‘drinkable’ [tz6tiixos ; and that is why in Attic the montli of the winter solstice is called Poseideon ; compare Anacreon : Lo! Scholiast on Dionysius Periegetes :. Tartessus which Anacreon calls all-happy, for that Arganthonius reigned there. Tf : cf. Compare Anacreoii : and oft loud-shouting Deunysus The i becoming gives Deonysus, which is the Samian foimand by contraction Deunysus, like Theodotns Theudotus.

TTriv tuv Kpoiaov rraTepa. Compare Anacreon in the first Book : Lo! Hesych, Soph. I cHmb up and dive from the White Cliff into the hoary wave, drunken with love. E: ni. Ar, Av. Lucian TTic Gallic fferrulcs: But when I remember that aged Heracles I begin to feel reckless and lose all shame to be doing such things at the statue”s time of life ; so strength and swiftness and beauty and all other bodily advantages niay go hang, and 3’our Love-God, poet of Teos, may ‘ fly by me,’ etc.

Light-winged I fly to Olympus to fetch master Love ; for lo I he will not play Avith me as he used to do, but he has seen that my beard is getting grey now, and so he flies by me in the wind of his golden- shining wings. And that is why Honier calls Argos ‘ much-thirsted-after ‘ as being much desired owing to lapse of time [to the absent Greeks]. And so too Sophocles says. The same sort of thing is said by Anacreon, and possibly there is a reference to it here. Anacreon says : nor in those days did Persuasion shine all silver.

I should live to see my country in misery ; Anaereon. For Anacreon lived some time at Athens at the time of his passion for Critias, and took delight in the lyrics of Aeschyhis. This passage resembles in rhythm : And will you not suffer me to go honie drunk?

B’ 45 Ath. In the second Book of his Lyric Foems we read : For ten months now has Megistes crowned him- self, dear heart, with osier and drunk the honey- sweet must. Love like a smith has smitten me with a great hammer and soused me in the chill stream. Indeed he was actually a rival in love to the poet Anacreon, and in a fit of i-age cut his beloved’s hair off. Aelian Hisioriml Miscellanies: Anacreon did not take upon himself to accuse Polycrates with coolness and determina- tion, but siiifted tlie blame to tlie beloved, in M’ords in which he upbraided his rashness and ignorance in taking arms against his own hair.

But the poem on the disaster to the hair must be sung by Anacreon ; for he will sing it him. Favoi’inus in Stobaeus Aidhulogy [against beauty]: And therefore Anacreon would seem to be ridiculous and captious in blaming the lad for liaving cut off soms of liis hair, in the words : You have shorn a faultless flower of soft hair, [arming your own hand against your tresses]. TfTaKTat he Kapa. ZrjvSSoTos Se fj. The word o-eico ‘ to shake ‘ occurs also iu the form o-ico, which is used by Anacreon, for instance: tossing [your] Thracian locks Hephaestion Randhook of Mefre [on the lonicum a minore] : Of the trimeter the acatalectic.

Charax PhiloK Baccliants prancing: o? Heylbut Ilcrmes 18S7 p. Avitli an e means ‘ cattle-lifting’ ; compare Homer JJiad ‘A niightily abunda.

For it is not an elegiac really, but the first part is a dactylic and the second an iambic, since it has two iambic feet and a syllable, so that the words cpiAfO ov togetlier make a short and one long. T’ 69 Stob. There is left me but a short span of sweet life. And so I often make my moan for fear of the underworld.

For dire is the dark hold of death, and grievous the way down thither ; and morCj tis sure that once down there’s no coming up. Kapwv]- tov 5s wepl to. He is in love with all who are beautiful and praises them all. His poems are full of the hair of Smerdis, the eyes of Cleobulus, and the jouthful bloom of Bathyllus.

Yet mark even iu this his powers of restraint : and I long to play witli you ; you liave such pretty ways ; and again : To be just and fair is a good tliing in lovers ; and I am sure he has revealed his art at once in the lines : For as for me, the children can but love me for my words and my tunes, seeing that I sing pretty things and know how to say pretty things. Lsd’ h rhv oivov. Conipare Anacreon : Bring water, lad, bring wine, bring me garlands of flowers ; aye, bring them hither ; for I would try a bout with Love.

OTi 5e payus eAeyjy rovs fiapus Kal peyos rh pifj. U7VZ [‘ Dido. I would have you to know I could bridle you right well and take rein and ride you about the turning-post of the course. But instead you graze in the meadows and frisk and froHc to your heart’s content ; for you have not a clever breaker to ride you. ApostoL TpoxaiKnv]- koI twv a. V 5 to Terpa- fj. Well, shall we niake use now of Euripides, Theages? It is he, I think, who says ‘ Kiugs know tlieir art through converse witli the knowing.

Weil then, shall I tell you the answer? Please do. You know the poem, don’t you? Theag, Yes. Soph Ant. TpvcpTis]- Xa,u3fA6iii’ 5′ 6 rijvTi. Troij Kv. Phitarch Against thc Stoics : So when they are thirsty they have no need of water, nor when hungry of bread : Ye are like kind guests who need but roof and fire. Zenobius Proverhs : It is said tliat the Carians when at war with Darius the Persian, iii obedience to an old oracle biddiiig them take the bravest of men for their allies, went to Branchidae and asked the God there if they should seek alliance with Miletus ; whereupon he replied : There was a time when the Milesians were brave men : but the line occurs earlier in Anacreon.

Hence the proverb. Gaisf, merum ed. I both love and love not, and am niad yet not mad. Ky – 6 aKiva. Kr]s Kiva. Some authorities say it means stubborn and it is used so by Anacreon.

It is Attic. P ied. Suhliine :. Most produotive and fruitful [of such an effect? And Aiiacreon says the saine : The lyre is near to Aegid Theseus. Anacreon calls her ‘all-given’ and ‘ people-trodden,’ and mad-tail? Sonie authorities say that Aethopia means ‘ wine,’ otliers ‘ Artemis. Tpofpiv]- Ko. DUincr [on meals] : Telemachus’ tables remained before the guests full during the whole of the entertainment as is still the custom among many Barbarian nations, overspread with all manner of good things as Anacreon says.

So Anacreon of the woman lie loved. Pro quo tam felici ouiine, praesertim quia et victoria consecuta est, in signis liellicis sibi aquilam auream fecit, tutelaeque suae virtuti dedicavit, unde et apud Romanos liuiuscemodi signa tracta suiit. Miller Mil. Zenobius Provrrbs : ‘ Prouder than Peleus of liis sword ‘ :. Somc autliorities say tliat lie wrote the story of Circe and Penelope ‘ loving the same man.

Od, 1. Paus : niss oItos ‘ cf. J ayddri;j. MeAavBov r? IG-i Eiist. Orion This man, who had been expelled from Athens, despite h. No, no ; just Hsten, and you’ll under- stand.

One day Lasus and Simonides were in for the chorus-prize, and when it was all over Lasus exclaimed ‘I don’t mind a bit. Tlieon Smyrn. Lasus of Hermione is said. For it was at Corintli that the dancing-chorus first appeared, and the originator of it was Arion of Methymna, who was foUowed by Lasus of Hermione.

He was the first writer on 1 cf. And one day, by way of a joke, he purloined a fish froni sonie fishermen, and gave it to one of the bystanders, and tlien took a solemn oath that he neitlier had it himself nor knew that anybody else had taken it ; which he was able to do because he liad taken it himself and another nian liad it, and this man had his instructions to swear that lie neither liad taken it himself nor knew that anybody else liad itwhich he in Hke manner could do because he had it and Lasus had taken it.

Plutarch False Shame : Tliis disease, then, being the cause of many ills, it behoves us to eradicate by treatment. Suppose, for instance, a fellow-guest asks you to play dice over the wine. Do not be put out of countenance or be afraid you are being made fun of, but imitate Xenophanes, who when Lasus of Hermione called him a coward for refusing to phiy dice with him, agreed that he was a coward, and a great coward, over unseemly things.

See also Tz. Prol Lyc. Aud ihat is why the Aeolians are so given to wine, women, and luxurious living. Aacros 5 51s eiTTa Ae-yei. Lasus gives her seven of either sex. The Same Xatiiral History: The young’of the lj’nx, also, seem to be lcnown as tkvjxvoi ‘ whelps. Uatdv Porph. These lie as though tlirown down beside her feet, and slie lierself is looking at a helmet which she holds in her hand and is about to put upon her head.

Telesilla was famous among women for her poetry, but still more famoiis for the following achievement. Her fellow-citizens had sustained an indescribable disaster at the hands of tlie Spartans under Cleomenes son of Anaxandrides.

Some had fallen in the actual battle, and of the others, who took sanctuary in the grove of Argus, some had at first ventured out under a truce only to be slaughtered, and the rest reaUsing the enemy’s treachery had stayed behind only to be burnt to death when he fired the grove. Bv these means Cleomenes, proceeding to Argos, led liis Lacedae- monians against a city of women. MiiL Virt. Now this battle had been foretold by the Pythian priestess, and Herodotus, whether he understood it or not;, quotes the oracle as follows : When male by female ‘s put to flight And Argos’ name with honour ‘s bright, Many an Argive wife shall show Both cheeks marred with scars of woe.

This woman, we are told, though the daughter of a doughty line, was of a sicklv habit of body, and sent one day to the God to enquire how she might improve lier liealth. When his reply came that she must pay court to the Miises, she obeyed him by devoting herself to poetiy and music, and with such good effect that before very long she had both rid herself of her disorder and become the wonder of her fellow- countrywomen for her skill in poesy. Those of the reference to tlie heroism of T.

The battle took place according to some writers on the seventh, according to others on the fii’st, of the month which is now reckoned the fourth and was known anciently at Argos as the month of Hermes; and oix this day the Argives still celebrate the Hybristica or Feast of Outrage, in which they dress women in the shirts and cloaks of men, and men in the robes and wimples of women.

Acconling to Plnt. See also Hdt. Waivos Se eiVi vaol Tpe7s K3. Nine Muses came of the great Heaven, and nine likewise of the Earth, to be a joy iindying unto mortal nien. The fornier name they have learnt from the Argives, wliose countrj-, according to Telesilla, was the tirst district of Greece in which Pythacus, Mho was a favourite of Apollo, arrived.

Nio3;5aii’]- eVtie? K0 TfJ. Apollodorus Library [on tlie children of Niobe] : The only son saved was Amphion and the only daughter Chloris, the eldest, who had become the wife of Neleus, thougli accord- ing to Telesilla the survivors were Amyclas and Meliboea, Amphion perishing with the rest. Tt]v ‘lovXlSa. There appears to have been a law liere, mentioned by Menander in the hnes ‘ The Cean custom takes my fancy still, The man who can’t live well shall not live ill,’ whereby, in order to make the suppHes go round, all citizens who had reaclied the age of sixty shoukl drink tlie hemlock.

Sta TO 7;Si;. Hipparchus, the eldest and wisest of the sons of Peisistratus, who among other fine ways showed his wisdom. Suidas Le. He was born in tlie 56th Olympiad b. He wrote the following works in the Doric dialect :.

Paa: EP. This Simonides had a very remarkable memory. Aristophanes Birds: Poet: Fve written some lyrics to your Cloudcuckooborough, a lot of fine dithyrambs and some maiden-songs, and.

The Same JVasps see on Lasus p. He’s all right ; but there’s something remark- able happening to him. Whafs that? Hes changing into Simonides. I mean that now that he’s old and off colour he’d go to sea on a hurdle to earn a groat. Hiheh Pap. Richards C. Stobaeus AntJiologij : When Simonides was asked why at his advanced age he was so careful of his money, he repHed, ‘ It is because I should rather leave money for enemies when I die than stand in need of friends while I Hve ; for I know too well how few friendships last.

By tliis he implies the possession of great riches, so as to be able to feed many retainers. By ‘ the great Ceian ‘ he means Simonides, who wrote victory-songs and dirges for the aforesaid great Thessalians.

Life below VOL, According to Simonides the word is the image of tlie thing. Aristides On tlie E. Simonides gives harmful advice when he says we should play all our lives and never be entirely in earnest. Simplicins atZ loc. Indeed, when Simonidcs of Ceos made an improper request of liim during the time of his command, he retorted that he would not be a good minister of state if he put favour before law, any more than Simonides would be a good poet if he sang out of tune.

I believe that the truth is that Simonides, of whom tradition speaks not only as a delightful poet but in all respects a wise and learned man, despaired of the true answer because so many subtle definitions occurred to him that he could not decide among them.

But not a blow was struck, and the war came to nothing. For we are told that the lyric poet Simonides came up in the nick of time and reconciled the two kings. Alexander of A] hrodisias on Ihe passage : These words will be clear to any reader who has been told what is meant by the Aoyo? This would seem to be characteristic of foreign birth and lack of educa- tion. Pindar Oliimpians : Skilled is the man who knoweth much by nature ; they that have but learnteven as a pair of crows, gluttonous in their wordiness, these chatter vain things against the divine bird of Zeus.

Scholiast on the passage : He hints at Bacchylides and Simonides, calling himself an eagle and his rlvals crows. Simonides often employs digression. Indeed he tells us himself that lie imitates the musical stvle of Pindar and Simonides and, generally, what is now called the ancient style.

Longinus the Rhetorician : Simonides and many after him have pointed out paths to remembrance, counselling us to compare images and localities in order to remember names and eventSj but there is nothing more in it than the concatenation and co- observation of the apparently new with what is similar to it. Cicero 0? Plutarch Should Old Men Govern?

Simonides won the chorus prize in his old age. At that spot the city was taken. Scholiast on Aristophanes JVasps [‘ mind you take up the catch properly’]: It was an old custom for guests at table to continue where tlie first singer left ofF.

The guest w ho began held a sprig of bay or myrtle and sang a lyric of Simonides or Stesichorus as far as he chose, and then handed the sprig to another, making his choice of a successor with no regard to the oi’der in which the guests were seated. Athenaeus Doclors at Dinncr :. Suidas Lexicon : Palaephatus : An Fjgyptian, or according to some authorities, an Athenian ; gram- marian ; wrote Argumcnts or introductions to the works of Sinionides.

Palatine Anthologij : The Garland of Meleager :. Catullus :. Dionysius of Hahcarnassus Criliquc of the Ancicnt JVritcrs : You should note in Simonides liis clioice of words and his nicety in combining them ; moreoverand here he surpasses even Pindarhe is remarkable for his expression of pity not by employing the grand style but by appealing to the emotions.

Quintilian Guidc to Oratorij [the Nine Lyric Poets] : Simonides, though in other respects not a command- ing figure, may be praised for his choice of exjires- sion and for a certain sweetness ; but his ehief excellence lies in his pathos ; indeed some critics LYRA GRAECA quidam in hac eum parte omnibus eius operis auctoribus praeferant.

See also Heph. Hiero, Villois. KaKMS ovv prjiri. Kal yap Kal irapa Si. Ancl so tlie Colchian fleece ouglit not to be callcd vqlkos, and Sinioaitles is wrong in this. Simonides sometimes calls it white aiid somelinies purple. And indeed in Simonides’ account the clothini; is tlie orize. U eVf!

The story is given by Simonides in tlie Prayers. Oreitliyia was the daughter of Erechtheus whom tlie Northwind carried ofi”from Attica to Tiirace, there to beget on her Zetes aad Calais, as Simonides tells in the Sca-Fijhf. TreT r The Same Eclogues : For now desiring to call the wind in poetic wise, but being unable to utter poetic speech, I would fain call the wind according to the Ceian Muse. Kitrtnoi oi ‘S. Miller Mvl.

The acropolis was called the ilemnonium, and the Susians are known as Cissian, a title whicli Aeschyhis gives to tlie niother of Memnon ; moreover Memnon is said to liave been buried near Paltus in Syria, on the banks of tlie river Badas, as is tohl by Simonides in his Dithyramb Memnon inchided aniong the Dcliaca.

SaTov [which usually are applied to sheep or goats. UiTTanelov, Arist. TiTpdyu vos, Arist. Adam : Plat. Se kuI tovs 6eoi B : Pl. My praise and friendship is for all them that of themselves earn no disgrace : even Gods figlit not against necessity I am no faultfinder ; enough for me is he that is not good nor yet too exceeding wicked, that knoweth that Right whicli aideth cities, a sound man.

Him will I never blame. Koi fjir 5eu Ka. Xfirwv perh. Such burial neither shall Decay darken, nor Time the all-vanquisher bedim. U 2S9 VOL. Ai’TLO ov Aristid. VliiK Soc. Compare Sinionides in tlie Dirges. Scholiast on Tlieocritus [‘ many in tlie liouse of Antiochus and king Aleuas’] : Antiochus was tlie son of Ecliecratidas and Uyseris, as we Ivnow from Simonides. Taixvvai compares Soph. Comjh 26 [tt. It is Danaii on the sea, bewailing her fate : When the wind came blowing upon the carven diest and the swaying sea bent her towards fear and tears that would not be stayed from her cheeks, she threw a loving arm round Perseus, saying, ‘O babe, what woe is thine!

Teaj’ icoi. TropcpvpiaKri Nietzsclie : mss -ea, ia. For if the dire were dire to thee, thou ‘dst lend thy little ear to what I say. And what- soever of my prayer be overbold and wrong, do thou forgive it me. A and throngh which Comatas was fed by the bees Tlieocr.

So long as water sball flow and tall trees grow green, sun rise and shine and moon give bght, rivers run and sea wash sbore, ever shall I abide upon tbis sore-lamentcd tonib and tell the passers-by that this is tlie grave of Rlidas. AU these are subject to the Gods ; but a stone, even mortal hands may break it. This is the rede of a fool. AhIoK 2. An Seni reap. He that can devise all is a God, and there’s nothing to be got among men without toil.

Jp’ 26, Agath. XIII may have been originally parts of Books ; for their order cf. Miller Mtl. Pro Iiiiag. It is or he is apparcntly famous. This poem comes from a Somi of ViHory of Simonides. Crius was an Aeginetan wrestler. And neither was Glaucus hiniself ofFended at being praised at the expense of the Gods who are guardians of athletes, nor did those Gods punish either Glaucus or the poet for impiety. Far from it, both of them received honour and glory from all Greece, the one for his strength and the other for no poem that he wrote more than for this.

Tb Sf avfM popa7s iir’ eaBXols- twv fxeauv yap rj avij. For it is really colourless [meaning an event]. Simonides includes both the victories iu his celebration of the victor. Shortly afterwards, having received a message that two young men wanted him urgently outside, Simonides rose from the table and went to the door, only to find nobody there. Tliat very moment Scopas ‘ dining-chamber coUapsed, and lie and liis perished in tlie ruins.

De Discr. SvvdTOts c. But wlien lie oftered him sufScient pay, he took it and wrote : Hail, ye daughters of storm-footed steeds!

Aud yet they were also daughters of asses. J’lrL Mor. Tzetzes Chiliads :. Rh, 3. Movaiov yap fjV lephv evTavda. Whereupon Boethus exclaimed that the place contributed to the stranger’s bewilderment.

For tliere was a chapel of the Muses there, where the spring rises, whicli is why they used this water for libations ; compare Simonides : 1 cf.

Tro pT vacTi. The captain of the ship was Pliereelus son of Amarsyas according to Simonides. Scholiast on Sophocles [‘ What is it you have left undone? For tiie scripture saitli ” Whosoever believetli on him shall not be put to shame. Disc, Ani. E: niss vvv : Wil. Ooiiv xopLr Wil. Sia yrjpas eh oIkov a pe9? Compare Simonides : When the babbling nightingales, the green-necked birds of the Spring Scholiast on Aristophanes Birds [‘What birds arethese’ etc.

This appears to be directed against Simonides, who when beaten by Pindar in the contest, wrote abuse of the judge for condemning a good poem. And it is because in this he said : 1 cf. KoX l,ip. Simonides tries to indicate it tlius : A breeze comes stippHng the sea.

Conv, 9. Rein : mss ra iroirifiaTa Koi Tro. According to Simonides, Etna decided between Hephaestus and Demeter when they quarrelled over the possession of the country. And it wouhl appear that, as if it were a matter of painting, the poems themselves are like the colours, and the dances to which they belong like the outlines which the colours fill. And the poet who is thought to have done his best and most expressive work in the Hyporcheme or Dance-Song proves that the two arts of dancing and poetry stand in need of one another ; conipare : Come pursue tlie curving course of tlie tune, and imitate with foot a-whirl in the contest unapproach- able horse or Amjclean hound ; or this : And even as on the windy Dotian plain a hound doth fly to find death for a horned hind, and she turns the head upon her neck this, that, and eveiy way and the rest:.

Reinach, 3Id. JVeil y. Tifxriffeis E: other- wise supply eiKhs from an earlier clause ‘ Kirchhoft’, Herm. At any rate lie takes no shauie to hiniself to praise iiis own tlanee any niore than his own poetry ; conipare: And when I shall sing the bride, I know well hovv to mingle the light dance of the feet.

 

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It will be remembered that popular IIp88CIh. AhIoK 2. By ‘ the great Ceian ‘ he means Simonides, who wrote victory-songs and dirges for the aforesaid great Thessalians. IS, a54p! For I have rather preferred to assign a precise date to a grammatical phenomenon with the risk of ooouionally erring in some detail, than to follow the usual broad periods etock thus shelter myself behind such vague generalities as ‘classical,’ ‘post-classica1,’ ‘Byzantine,’ or the like, terms which surely do not convey a quite definite idea. Aapiratae and Mediae B.❿
 
 

Windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos stock market.Full text of “The Times , , UK, English”

 
 
Jour A. CII, Tit. Epityinbidian or Over-thc-Gvave. General Phonopathy Cl. Nvr 4 ‘ship’A.

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